We sought to identify the total number of therapeutic trials targeting FLT3-mutant acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to estimate the number of patients needed to satisfy recruitment when compared with the incidence of this mutation in the US AML population. A systematic review of all therapeutic clinical trials focusing on adult FLT3-mutated AML was conducted from 2000 to 2017. An updated search was performed using ClinicalTrials.gov for trials added between October 2017 and December 2018. Analysis was performed for ClinicalTrials.gov search results from 2000 to 2017 to provide descriptive estimates of discrepancies between anticipated clinical trial enrollment using consistently cited rates of adult participation of 1%, 3%, and 5%, as well as 10% participation identified by the American Society of Clinical Oncology in 2008. Twenty-five pharmaceutical or biological agents aimed at treating FLT3-mutant AML were identified. Pharmaceutical vs cooperative group/nonprofit support was 2.3:1, with 30 different pharmaceutical collaborators and 13 cooperative group/nonprofit collaborators. The number of patients needed to satisfy study enrollment begins to surpass the upper bound of estimated participation in 2010, noticeably surpassing projected participation rates between 2015 and 2016. The number of patients needed to satisfy study enrollment surpasses 3% and 5% rates of historical participation for US-only trials in 2017. We estimate that 15% of all US patients with FLT3-mutant AML would have to enroll in US and internationally accruing trials to satisfy requirements in 2017, or approximately 3 times the upper level of historical participation rates in the United States. The current clinical trial agenda in this space requires high percentage enrollment for sustainability.
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