Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be associated with enlargement of the major salivary glands or symptoms of dry mouth. We term this condition HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIV-SGD). In this report we describe 12 patients with HIV-SGD. Nine patients (one child, eight adults) had enlargement of the parotid glands, and three had xerostomia alone. Symptoms of dry mouth, dry eyes or arthralgia occurred in 11, five and five patients, respectively. Salivary flow rates were normal or slightly reduced in seven patients and severely.reduced in five. Labial salivary gland (LSG) biopsy specimens from patients contained lymphocytic ilfiltrates in focal and other patterns, whereas specimens from three HIV-infected patients without salivary gland symptoms did not. The inflammatory infiltrates in LSG specimens showed a preponderance of T8-positive cells and a tissue T4/T8 average ratio of 0.66. The mean T4/T8 ratio of peripheral blood lymphocytes was 0.4. Serum antinuclear antibodies were present in one patient, but rheumatoid factor, SS-A, and SS-B antibodies were absent in all. Search for Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus in the LSG tissue of the six patients tested did not reveal evidence of antigens or DNA. HIV-SGD patients show a number of similarities to and differences from patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The similarities include the oral and salivary features, histopathology and possibly changes in other organs. The differences include the lower salivary gland T4/T8 ratio and the absence of autoantibodies in serum. The causes of HIV-SGD as well as of Sjögren's syndrome are unknown.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy