In 100 consecutive major upper gastrointestinal bleeders, panendoscopy (esophagogastroduodenoscopy) was employed as the initial diagnostic procedure, and documented the source of hemorrhage in 92% of cases. The 'emergency' upper gastrointestinal series added another 2 diagnoses (duodenal ulcers missed on endoscopy). Emergency surgery also added 2 diagnoses, and in both of these patients endoscopy had directed the surgeon to the correct area of bleeding (gastric fundal ulcers). 19 fewer diagnoses would have been made if endoscopy had been limited to visualization of the esophagus and stomach.
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