Oxidative stress in the placenta

Leslie Myatt, Xiaolan Cui

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

500 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Pregnancy is a state of oxidative stress arising from increased placental mitochondrial activity and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly superoxide anion. The placenta also produces other ROS including nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and peroxynitrite which have pronounced effects on placental function including trophoblast proliferation and differentiation and vascular reactivity. Excessive production of ROS may occur at certain windows in placental development and in pathologic pregnancies, such as those complicated by preeclampsia and/or IUGR, overpowering antioxidant defenses with deleterious outcome. In the first trimester, establishment of blood flow into the intervillous space is associated with a burst of oxidative stress. The inability to mount an effective antioxidant defense against this results in early pregnancy loss. In late gestation increased oxidative stress is seen in pregnancies complicated by diabetes, IUGR, and preeclampsia in association with increased trophoblast apoptosis and deportation and altered placental vascular reactivity. Evidence for this oxidative stress includes increased lipid peroxides and isoprostanes and decreased expression and activity of antioxidants. The interaction of nitric oxide and superoxide produces peroxynitrite, a powerful prooxidant with diverse deleterious effects including nitration of tyrosine residues on proteins thus altering function. Nitrative stress, subsequent to oxidative stress is seen in the placenta in preeclampsia and diabetes in association with altered placental function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)369-382
Number of pages14
JournalHistochemistry and Cell Biology
Volume122
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2004
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Oxidative stress
Placenta
Oxidative Stress
pregnancy
Pre-Eclampsia
Antioxidants
antioxidants
Reactive Oxygen Species
Pregnancy
Peroxynitrous Acid
Fetal Growth Retardation
Nitric oxide
Trophoblasts
Medical problems
Superoxides
inorganic peroxides
Oxygen
Blood Vessels
nitric oxide
Nitric Oxide

Keywords

  • Nitric oxide
  • Oxidative stress
  • Peroxynitrite
  • Placenta
  • Superoxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology
  • Instrumentation

Cite this

Oxidative stress in the placenta. / Myatt, Leslie; Cui, Xiaolan.

In: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, Vol. 122, No. 4, 10.2004, p. 369-382.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Myatt, Leslie ; Cui, Xiaolan. / Oxidative stress in the placenta. In: Histochemistry and Cell Biology. 2004 ; Vol. 122, No. 4. pp. 369-382.
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