Ovarian malignant germ cell tumors: Cellular classification and clinical and imaging features

Akram M. Shaaban, Maryam Rezvani, Khaled M. Elsayes, Henry Baskin, Amr Mourad, Bryan Foster, Elke A. Jarboe, Christine O. Menias

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ovarian malignant germ cell tumors (OMGCTs) are heterogeneous tumors that are derived from the primitive germ cells of the embryonic gonad. OMGCTs are rare, accounting for about 2.6% of all ovarian malignancies, and typically manifest in adolescence, usually with abdominal pain, a palpable mass, and elevated serum tumor marker levels, which may serve as an adjunct in the initial diagnosis, monitoring during therapy, and posttreatment surveillance. Dysgerminoma, the most common malignant germ cell tumor, usually manifests as a solid mass. Immature teratomas manifest as a solid mass with scattered foci of fat and calcifications. Yolk sac tumors usually manifest as a mixed solid and cystic mass. Capsular rupture or the bright dot sign, a result of increased vascularity and the formation of small vascular aneurysms, may be present. Embryonal carcinomas and polyembryomas rarely manifest in a pure form and are more commonly part of a mixed germ cell tumor. Some OMGCTs have characteristic features that allow a diagnosis to be confidently made, whereas others have nonspecific features, which make them difficult to diagnose. However, imaging features, the patient's age at presentation, and tumor markers may help establish a reasonable differential diagnosis. Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors spread in the same manner as epithelial ovarian neoplasms but are more likely to involve regional lymph nodes. Preoperative imaging may depict local extension, peritoneal disease, and distant metastases. Suspicious areas may be sampled during surgery. Because OMGCTs are almost always unilateral and are chemosensitive, fertility-sparing surgery is the standard of care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)777-801
Number of pages25
JournalRadiographics
Volume34
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

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Germ Cell and Embryonal Neoplasms
Tumor Biomarkers
Peritoneal Diseases
Dysgerminoma
Embryonal Carcinoma
Endodermal Sinus Tumor
Glandular and Epithelial Neoplasms
Teratoma
Gonads
Standard of Care
Ovarian Neoplasms
Abdominal Pain
Aneurysm
Fertility
Blood Vessels
Rupture
Neoplasms
Differential Diagnosis
Biomarkers
Lymph Nodes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Shaaban, A. M., Rezvani, M., Elsayes, K. M., Baskin, H., Mourad, A., Foster, B., ... Menias, C. O. (2014). Ovarian malignant germ cell tumors: Cellular classification and clinical and imaging features. Radiographics, 34(3), 777-801. https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.343130067

Ovarian malignant germ cell tumors : Cellular classification and clinical and imaging features. / Shaaban, Akram M.; Rezvani, Maryam; Elsayes, Khaled M.; Baskin, Henry; Mourad, Amr; Foster, Bryan; Jarboe, Elke A.; Menias, Christine O.

In: Radiographics, Vol. 34, No. 3, 2014, p. 777-801.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shaaban, AM, Rezvani, M, Elsayes, KM, Baskin, H, Mourad, A, Foster, B, Jarboe, EA & Menias, CO 2014, 'Ovarian malignant germ cell tumors: Cellular classification and clinical and imaging features', Radiographics, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 777-801. https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.343130067
Shaaban, Akram M. ; Rezvani, Maryam ; Elsayes, Khaled M. ; Baskin, Henry ; Mourad, Amr ; Foster, Bryan ; Jarboe, Elke A. ; Menias, Christine O. / Ovarian malignant germ cell tumors : Cellular classification and clinical and imaging features. In: Radiographics. 2014 ; Vol. 34, No. 3. pp. 777-801.
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