Outcomes of a Prospective Trial of Student-Athlete Drug Testing: The Student Athlete Testing Using Random Notification (SATURN) Study

Linn Goldberg, Diane Elliot, David P. MacKinnon, Esther Moe, Kerry Kuehl, Myeongsun Yoon, Aaron Taylor, Jason Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

33 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: To assess the effects of random drug and alcohol testing (DAT) among high school athletes. Methods: This was a 2-year prospective randomized controlled study of a single cohort among five intervention high schools with a DAT policy and six schools with a deferred policy, serially assessed by voluntary, confidential questionnaires. DAT school athletes were at risk for random testing during the full academic year. Positive test results were reported to parents or guardians, with mandatory counseling. Indices of illicit drug use, with and without alcohol use, were assessed at the beginning and end of each school year for the past month and prior year. Potential mediating variables were evaluated. Results: Student-athletes from intervention and control schools did not differ in past 1-month use of illicit drug or a combination of drug and alcohol use at any of the four follow-up periods. At the end of the initial school year and after 2 full school years, student-athletes at DAT schools reported less drug use during the past year (p <.01) compared to athletes at the deferred policy schools. Combining past year drug and alcohol use together, student-athletes at DAT schools reported less use at the second and third follow-up assessments (p <.05). Paradoxically, DAT athletes across all assessments reported less athletic competence (p <.001), less belief authorities were opposed to drug use (p <.01), and indicated greater risk-taking (p <.05). At the final assessment, DAT athletes believed less in testing benefits (p <.05) and less that testing was a reason not to use drugs (p <.01). Conclusions: No DAT deterrent effects were evident for past month use during any of four follow-up periods. Prior-year drug use was reduced in two of four follow-up self-reports, and a combination of drug and alcohol use was reduced at two assessments as well. Overall, drug testing was accompanied by an increase in some risk factors for future substance use. More research is needed before DAT is considered an effective deterrent for school-based athletes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)421-429
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Adolescent Health
Volume41
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2007

Fingerprint

Athletes
Students
Alcohols
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Street Drugs
Drug Combinations
Alcohol Deterrents
Risk-Taking
Mental Competency
Self Report
Sports
Counseling
Parents

Keywords

  • Adolescent
  • Drug and alcohol testing
  • High school
  • Substance use

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

Outcomes of a Prospective Trial of Student-Athlete Drug Testing : The Student Athlete Testing Using Random Notification (SATURN) Study. / Goldberg, Linn; Elliot, Diane; MacKinnon, David P.; Moe, Esther; Kuehl, Kerry; Yoon, Myeongsun; Taylor, Aaron; Williams, Jason.

In: Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 41, No. 5, 11.2007, p. 421-429.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{8a0076bd5ab546728f05ad4a3d0b29fa,
title = "Outcomes of a Prospective Trial of Student-Athlete Drug Testing: The Student Athlete Testing Using Random Notification (SATURN) Study",
abstract = "Purpose: To assess the effects of random drug and alcohol testing (DAT) among high school athletes. Methods: This was a 2-year prospective randomized controlled study of a single cohort among five intervention high schools with a DAT policy and six schools with a deferred policy, serially assessed by voluntary, confidential questionnaires. DAT school athletes were at risk for random testing during the full academic year. Positive test results were reported to parents or guardians, with mandatory counseling. Indices of illicit drug use, with and without alcohol use, were assessed at the beginning and end of each school year for the past month and prior year. Potential mediating variables were evaluated. Results: Student-athletes from intervention and control schools did not differ in past 1-month use of illicit drug or a combination of drug and alcohol use at any of the four follow-up periods. At the end of the initial school year and after 2 full school years, student-athletes at DAT schools reported less drug use during the past year (p <.01) compared to athletes at the deferred policy schools. Combining past year drug and alcohol use together, student-athletes at DAT schools reported less use at the second and third follow-up assessments (p <.05). Paradoxically, DAT athletes across all assessments reported less athletic competence (p <.001), less belief authorities were opposed to drug use (p <.01), and indicated greater risk-taking (p <.05). At the final assessment, DAT athletes believed less in testing benefits (p <.05) and less that testing was a reason not to use drugs (p <.01). Conclusions: No DAT deterrent effects were evident for past month use during any of four follow-up periods. Prior-year drug use was reduced in two of four follow-up self-reports, and a combination of drug and alcohol use was reduced at two assessments as well. Overall, drug testing was accompanied by an increase in some risk factors for future substance use. More research is needed before DAT is considered an effective deterrent for school-based athletes.",
keywords = "Adolescent, Drug and alcohol testing, High school, Substance use",
author = "Linn Goldberg and Diane Elliot and MacKinnon, {David P.} and Esther Moe and Kerry Kuehl and Myeongsun Yoon and Aaron Taylor and Jason Williams",
year = "2007",
month = "11",
doi = "10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.08.001",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "41",
pages = "421--429",
journal = "Journal of Adolescent Health",
issn = "1054-139X",
publisher = "Elsevier USA",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Outcomes of a Prospective Trial of Student-Athlete Drug Testing

T2 - The Student Athlete Testing Using Random Notification (SATURN) Study

AU - Goldberg, Linn

AU - Elliot, Diane

AU - MacKinnon, David P.

AU - Moe, Esther

AU - Kuehl, Kerry

AU - Yoon, Myeongsun

AU - Taylor, Aaron

AU - Williams, Jason

PY - 2007/11

Y1 - 2007/11

N2 - Purpose: To assess the effects of random drug and alcohol testing (DAT) among high school athletes. Methods: This was a 2-year prospective randomized controlled study of a single cohort among five intervention high schools with a DAT policy and six schools with a deferred policy, serially assessed by voluntary, confidential questionnaires. DAT school athletes were at risk for random testing during the full academic year. Positive test results were reported to parents or guardians, with mandatory counseling. Indices of illicit drug use, with and without alcohol use, were assessed at the beginning and end of each school year for the past month and prior year. Potential mediating variables were evaluated. Results: Student-athletes from intervention and control schools did not differ in past 1-month use of illicit drug or a combination of drug and alcohol use at any of the four follow-up periods. At the end of the initial school year and after 2 full school years, student-athletes at DAT schools reported less drug use during the past year (p <.01) compared to athletes at the deferred policy schools. Combining past year drug and alcohol use together, student-athletes at DAT schools reported less use at the second and third follow-up assessments (p <.05). Paradoxically, DAT athletes across all assessments reported less athletic competence (p <.001), less belief authorities were opposed to drug use (p <.01), and indicated greater risk-taking (p <.05). At the final assessment, DAT athletes believed less in testing benefits (p <.05) and less that testing was a reason not to use drugs (p <.01). Conclusions: No DAT deterrent effects were evident for past month use during any of four follow-up periods. Prior-year drug use was reduced in two of four follow-up self-reports, and a combination of drug and alcohol use was reduced at two assessments as well. Overall, drug testing was accompanied by an increase in some risk factors for future substance use. More research is needed before DAT is considered an effective deterrent for school-based athletes.

AB - Purpose: To assess the effects of random drug and alcohol testing (DAT) among high school athletes. Methods: This was a 2-year prospective randomized controlled study of a single cohort among five intervention high schools with a DAT policy and six schools with a deferred policy, serially assessed by voluntary, confidential questionnaires. DAT school athletes were at risk for random testing during the full academic year. Positive test results were reported to parents or guardians, with mandatory counseling. Indices of illicit drug use, with and without alcohol use, were assessed at the beginning and end of each school year for the past month and prior year. Potential mediating variables were evaluated. Results: Student-athletes from intervention and control schools did not differ in past 1-month use of illicit drug or a combination of drug and alcohol use at any of the four follow-up periods. At the end of the initial school year and after 2 full school years, student-athletes at DAT schools reported less drug use during the past year (p <.01) compared to athletes at the deferred policy schools. Combining past year drug and alcohol use together, student-athletes at DAT schools reported less use at the second and third follow-up assessments (p <.05). Paradoxically, DAT athletes across all assessments reported less athletic competence (p <.001), less belief authorities were opposed to drug use (p <.01), and indicated greater risk-taking (p <.05). At the final assessment, DAT athletes believed less in testing benefits (p <.05) and less that testing was a reason not to use drugs (p <.01). Conclusions: No DAT deterrent effects were evident for past month use during any of four follow-up periods. Prior-year drug use was reduced in two of four follow-up self-reports, and a combination of drug and alcohol use was reduced at two assessments as well. Overall, drug testing was accompanied by an increase in some risk factors for future substance use. More research is needed before DAT is considered an effective deterrent for school-based athletes.

KW - Adolescent

KW - Drug and alcohol testing

KW - High school

KW - Substance use

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=35248846602&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=35248846602&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.08.001

DO - 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.08.001

M3 - Article

C2 - 17950161

AN - SCOPUS:35248846602

VL - 41

SP - 421

EP - 429

JO - Journal of Adolescent Health

JF - Journal of Adolescent Health

SN - 1054-139X

IS - 5

ER -