Objective Methamphetamine use is widespread. Our goal was to examine the effects of methamphetamine use on various maternal and neonatal outcomes. Study Design We conducted a retrospective cohort study looking at all pregnancies between 2005 and 2008 in the state of California that were associated with a diagnosis of methamphetamine use. Outcomes examined included gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, preterm birth, small for gestational age, birthweight, abruption, intrauterine fetal death, neonatal death, infant death, jaundice, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Statistical analysis included chi-squared tests and multivariable logistic regression analyses.
Results After adjustment for multiple confounding variables on multivariable regression analysis, results indicated that compared with control subjects, methamphetamine users had greater odds of gestational hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-2.0), preeclampsia (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 2.4-3.0), intrauterine fetal death (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 3.7-7.2), and abruption (OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 4.9-6.3). Additionally, these patients had higher odds of preterm birth (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.7-3.1), neonatal death (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 2.3-4.2), and infant death (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.7-3.7).
Conclusion Methamphetamine use in pregnancy was found to be associated with specific patterns of increased maternal and fetal morbidity and death. With these results in mind, further work can be done to improve the care of pregnancies that are complicated by methamphetamine use in hopes of reducing these complications.
- substance abuse
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Obstetrics and Gynecology