Osteosarcoma (OS), chondrosarcoma, and chordoma are characterized by multiple challenges to the investigator, clinician, and patient. One consequence of their rarity among sarcomas, as well as their biologic and clinical heterogeneity, is that management guidelines are inadequate to inform the range of individual patient-treatment decisions from diagnosis, approaches to surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, treatment of recurrence, palliative care, and quality of survivorship. Of high-grade sarcomas, OSs are among the most curable, with more than two-thirds of patients with localized disease likely to achieve long-term survival. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy comprising cisplatin, doxorubicin, and methotrexate with intercalated surgery is the standard of care for resectable OS in those younger than 40 years. Outcomes for OS presenting with unresectable metastases or recurrent disease, or in those older than 40 years are generally poor. Overall results have improved little for all patients with OS, and new treatments are needed. Surgical resection remains the cornerstone of management for chondrosarcoma and chordoma. However, the application of new biologic insights to therapeutic development indicates that improved treatments may soon be routine for patients with chondrosarcoma and chordoma for whom surgery alone is inadequate. For all these uncommon diseases, patients should be offered specialist expert care delivered by experienced multidisciplinary teams in high-volume centers.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research