Objectives: To familiarize rheumatologists and internists with the signs, symptoms, and management of orbital inflammatory disease (OID). Methods: A comprehensive literature review related to OID was performed and reported from the perspectives of rheumatology, ophthalmology, and radiology. Results: OID is a general term encompassing inflammatory diseases that affect some or all of the structures contained within the orbit external to the globe. Orbital involvement as a part of the initial symptom complex is not uncommon for systemic diseases such as Graves' disease, Wegener's granulomatosis, and sarcoidosis. The management of these and other causes of OID, such as idiopathic orbital inflammation (formerly known as "orbital pseudotumor"), orbital myositis, and Tolosa-Hunt syndrome frequently involves systemic immunosuppression. Before immunosuppression is considered, however, infectious and malignant causes of inflammation must be ruled out. Discussion: Rheumatologists should be familiar with the differential diagnosis of OID and often need to assist colleagues in ophthalmology and internal medicine with the management of this group of diseases.
- Graves' disease
- Wegener's granulomatosis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine