In this paper, we analyzed the retinal and choroidal blood vasculature in the posterior segment of the human eye with optimized color Doppler and Doppler variance optical coherence tomography. Depth-resolved structure, color Doppler and Doppler variance images were compared. Blood vessels down to capillary level were able to be obtained with the optimized optical coherence color Doppler and Doppler variance method. For in-vivo imaging of human eyes, bulkmotion induced bulk phase must be identified and removed before using color Doppler method. It was found that the Doppler variance method is not sensitive to bulk motion and the method can be used without removing the bulk phase. A novel, simple and fast segmentation algorithm to indentify retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was proposed and used to segment the retinal and choroidal layer. The algorithm was based on the detected OCT signal intensity difference between different layers. A spectrometer-based Fourier domain OCT system with a central wavelength of 890 nm and bandwidth of 150nm was used in this study. The 3-dimensional imaging volume contained 120 sequential two dimensional images with 2048 A-lines per image. The total imaging time was 12 seconds and the imaging area was 5x5 mm2.