Operable Melanoma: Screening, Prognostication, and Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Therapy

Ahmad A. Tarhini, Paul Lorigan, Sancy Leachman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


The importance of reducing the numbers of patients with late-stage melanoma, identifying which patients are most likely to progress, and treating these patients at the earliest possible stage cannot be overemphasized. Improved screening of patients prior to diagnosis has the advantage of identifying early-stage disease that is for the most part treatable by surgical methods. The process of melanoma screening is rapidly evolving through population-based programs, mobile health technologies, and advanced imaging tools. For patients with newly diagnosed melanoma, accurately estimating disease prognosis has important implications for management and follow-up. Prognostic factors are individual host- or tumor-related factors or molecules that correlate with genetic predisposition and clinical course. These include clinical covariates and host and tumor proteomic/genomic markers that allow the prognostic subclassification of patients. Adjuvant therapy for high-risk surgically resected melanoma targets residual micrometastatic disease with the goal of reducing the risk of relapse and mortality. In the United States, three regimens have achieved regulatory approval for adjuvant therapy, including high-dose interferon alpha, pegylated interferon alpha, and ipilimumab at 10 mg/kg. Phase III trials have reported benefits in relapse-free survival (all regimens) and overall survival (high-dose interferon alpha and ipilimumab). The management of locally/regionally advanced melanoma may benefit from neoadjuvant therapy, which is the subject of several ongoing studies. Recent studies have shown promising clinical activity and yielded important biomarker findings and mechanistic insights.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)651-660
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Society of Clinical Oncology educational book. American Society of Clinical Oncology. Annual Meeting
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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