Ontogeny of the hypothalamic neuropeptide Y system

Kevin Grove, M (Susan) Smith

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    151 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Early onset obesity and type II diabetes is rapidly becoming an epidemic, especially within the United States. This dramatic increase is likely due to many factors including both prenatal and postnatal environmental cues. The purpose of this review is to highlight some of the recent advances in our knowledge of the development of the hypothalamic circuits involved in the regulation of energy balance, with a focus on the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system. Unlike the adult rat, during the postnatal period NPY is transiently expressed in several hypothalamic regions, along with the expected expression within the arcuate nucleus (ARH). These transient populations of NPY neurons during the postnatal period may provide local NPY production to sustain the necessary energy intake during this critical growth phase. This may be physiologically important since ARH-NPY projections do not fully develop until the 3rd postnatal week. The significance of this ontogeny is that many peripheral metabolic signals have little effect of feeding prior to the development of the ARH projections. The essential questions now are whether prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to high levels of insulin or leptin during development can cause permanent changes in the function of hypothalamic circuits. It is vital to understand not only the natural development of the hypothalamic circuits that regulate energy homeostasis, but also their abnormal development caused by maternal and postnatal environmental cues. This will be pivotal for designing intervention and therapeutics to treat early onset obesity/type II diabetes, which may very well need to be different from those designed to prevent/treat adult onset obesity/type II diabetes.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)47-63
    Number of pages17
    JournalPhysiology and Behavior
    Volume79
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jun 2003

    Fingerprint

    Neuropeptide Y
    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Obesity
    Cues
    Arcuate Nucleus of Hypothalamus
    Leptin
    Energy Intake
    Homeostasis
    Mothers
    Insulin
    Neurons
    Growth
    Population

    Keywords

    • α melanocyte-stimulating hormone
    • Agouti-related protein
    • Diabetes
    • Insulin
    • Leptin
    • Neuropeptide Y
    • Nonhuman primate
    • Obesity
    • Postnatal development
    • Rodent

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Behavioral Neuroscience
    • Physiology (medical)

    Cite this

    Ontogeny of the hypothalamic neuropeptide Y system. / Grove, Kevin; Smith, M (Susan).

    In: Physiology and Behavior, Vol. 79, No. 1, 06.2003, p. 47-63.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Grove, Kevin ; Smith, M (Susan). / Ontogeny of the hypothalamic neuropeptide Y system. In: Physiology and Behavior. 2003 ; Vol. 79, No. 1. pp. 47-63.
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