Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: new developments and applications.

William Harris, Thomas D. Dayspring, Terrance J. Moran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

47 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The omega-3 fatty acids (FA) found in fish oils, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA, respectively), have been extensively studied therapeutically in a wide variety of disease conditions, but in none more than cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our review summarizes mechanisms of action, recent meta-analyses of CVD outcome trials, sources (fish and supplements), and recommendations for use of omega-3 FA in clinical practice. With the ability to now measure the omega-3 FA biostatus through blood tests, patients can achieve cardioprotective levels by either taking fish oil supplements or simply eating more oily fish. Two omega-3 FA formulations (both in the ethyl ester form) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of patients with very high triglyceride levels (> 500 mg/dL); one contains both EPA and DHA, whereas the other contains only EPA. The agents have been extensively tested in 2 patient populations, those with very high triglycerides and those with triglycerides between 200 and 500 mg/dL while on background statin therapy. In general, treatment with EPA+DHA appears to lower patient triglycerides more effectively, but in those patients with very high triglyceride levels, use of EPA+DHA also raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, whereas EPA alone did not. Both formulations, at doses that do not lower triglycerides, have been shown to reduce CVD events in some, but not all, studies. Given the favorable risk-to-benefit ratio for these essentially nutritional agents, use is expected to continue to expand.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)100-113
Number of pages14
JournalPostgraduate Medicine
Volume125
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Triglycerides
Cardiovascular Diseases
Fish Oils
Fishes
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Eicosapentaenoic Acid
Docosahexaenoic Acids
Hematologic Tests
United States Food and Drug Administration
LDL Cholesterol
Meta-Analysis
Esters
Therapeutics
Eating
Population

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Harris, W., Dayspring, T. D., & Moran, T. J. (2013). Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: new developments and applications. Postgraduate Medicine, 125(6), 100-113.

Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease : new developments and applications. / Harris, William; Dayspring, Thomas D.; Moran, Terrance J.

In: Postgraduate Medicine, Vol. 125, No. 6, 11.2013, p. 100-113.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harris, W, Dayspring, TD & Moran, TJ 2013, 'Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: new developments and applications.', Postgraduate Medicine, vol. 125, no. 6, pp. 100-113.
Harris, William ; Dayspring, Thomas D. ; Moran, Terrance J. / Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease : new developments and applications. In: Postgraduate Medicine. 2013 ; Vol. 125, No. 6. pp. 100-113.
@article{1081d6655cde47c49b58b5d322ab3729,
title = "Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: new developments and applications.",
abstract = "The omega-3 fatty acids (FA) found in fish oils, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA, respectively), have been extensively studied therapeutically in a wide variety of disease conditions, but in none more than cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our review summarizes mechanisms of action, recent meta-analyses of CVD outcome trials, sources (fish and supplements), and recommendations for use of omega-3 FA in clinical practice. With the ability to now measure the omega-3 FA biostatus through blood tests, patients can achieve cardioprotective levels by either taking fish oil supplements or simply eating more oily fish. Two omega-3 FA formulations (both in the ethyl ester form) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of patients with very high triglyceride levels (> 500 mg/dL); one contains both EPA and DHA, whereas the other contains only EPA. The agents have been extensively tested in 2 patient populations, those with very high triglycerides and those with triglycerides between 200 and 500 mg/dL while on background statin therapy. In general, treatment with EPA+DHA appears to lower patient triglycerides more effectively, but in those patients with very high triglyceride levels, use of EPA+DHA also raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, whereas EPA alone did not. Both formulations, at doses that do not lower triglycerides, have been shown to reduce CVD events in some, but not all, studies. Given the favorable risk-to-benefit ratio for these essentially nutritional agents, use is expected to continue to expand.",
author = "William Harris and Dayspring, {Thomas D.} and Moran, {Terrance J.}",
year = "2013",
month = "11",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "125",
pages = "100--113",
journal = "Postgraduate Medicine",
issn = "0032-5481",
publisher = "Medquest Communications LLC",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease

T2 - new developments and applications.

AU - Harris, William

AU - Dayspring, Thomas D.

AU - Moran, Terrance J.

PY - 2013/11

Y1 - 2013/11

N2 - The omega-3 fatty acids (FA) found in fish oils, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA, respectively), have been extensively studied therapeutically in a wide variety of disease conditions, but in none more than cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our review summarizes mechanisms of action, recent meta-analyses of CVD outcome trials, sources (fish and supplements), and recommendations for use of omega-3 FA in clinical practice. With the ability to now measure the omega-3 FA biostatus through blood tests, patients can achieve cardioprotective levels by either taking fish oil supplements or simply eating more oily fish. Two omega-3 FA formulations (both in the ethyl ester form) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of patients with very high triglyceride levels (> 500 mg/dL); one contains both EPA and DHA, whereas the other contains only EPA. The agents have been extensively tested in 2 patient populations, those with very high triglycerides and those with triglycerides between 200 and 500 mg/dL while on background statin therapy. In general, treatment with EPA+DHA appears to lower patient triglycerides more effectively, but in those patients with very high triglyceride levels, use of EPA+DHA also raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, whereas EPA alone did not. Both formulations, at doses that do not lower triglycerides, have been shown to reduce CVD events in some, but not all, studies. Given the favorable risk-to-benefit ratio for these essentially nutritional agents, use is expected to continue to expand.

AB - The omega-3 fatty acids (FA) found in fish oils, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA, respectively), have been extensively studied therapeutically in a wide variety of disease conditions, but in none more than cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our review summarizes mechanisms of action, recent meta-analyses of CVD outcome trials, sources (fish and supplements), and recommendations for use of omega-3 FA in clinical practice. With the ability to now measure the omega-3 FA biostatus through blood tests, patients can achieve cardioprotective levels by either taking fish oil supplements or simply eating more oily fish. Two omega-3 FA formulations (both in the ethyl ester form) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of patients with very high triglyceride levels (> 500 mg/dL); one contains both EPA and DHA, whereas the other contains only EPA. The agents have been extensively tested in 2 patient populations, those with very high triglycerides and those with triglycerides between 200 and 500 mg/dL while on background statin therapy. In general, treatment with EPA+DHA appears to lower patient triglycerides more effectively, but in those patients with very high triglyceride levels, use of EPA+DHA also raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, whereas EPA alone did not. Both formulations, at doses that do not lower triglycerides, have been shown to reduce CVD events in some, but not all, studies. Given the favorable risk-to-benefit ratio for these essentially nutritional agents, use is expected to continue to expand.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84891710897&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84891710897&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 24200766

AN - SCOPUS:84891710897

VL - 125

SP - 100

EP - 113

JO - Postgraduate Medicine

JF - Postgraduate Medicine

SN - 0032-5481

IS - 6

ER -