Long-chain, highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) of the omega-3 (o-3 or n-3) family include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). EPA and DPA are 20-and 22-carbon molecules, respectively, with five double bonds D5,8,11,14,17, while DHA is a 22carbon and six double-bond molecule D5,8,11,14,17,20. All fatty acids (FA) in the o-3 family are characterized by having their first double bond at the 3rd position counting from the terminal (o or nth) methyl group in the molecule (Fig. 1). As with the omega-6 family, o-3 FA cannot be synthesized de novo by mammals and must be obtained from the diet.
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