Observation of the retina using the tandem scanning confocal microscope

William Mathers, T. Littlefield, R. Lakes, J. A. Lane, T. E. Daley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A tandem scanning confocal microscope (TSCM) is currently being used to obtain high-resolution images of the human cornea in vivo. Advantages of confocal microscopy for in vivo imaging include optical sectioning and increased contrast through removal of scattered light. We have adapted the TSCM to view the retina in vivo by constructing an applanating lens and fitting the microscope with an imaging-intensifying camera of increased sensitivity. The microscope uses a spinning dics with 40,000 holes, each of 30 microns diameter, and a 100 W mercury are lamp light source with a 455 nm long pass filter. The applanating lens is composed of three elements, two of which are movable for focusing. Images of a rabbit retina were obtained in vivo revealing the nerve fiber layer and blood vessels around the optic disc. The power density at the retina was calculated to be 3 mW/cm2, which is well below the power levels of a direct or indirect ophthalmoscope. Magnification of the retinal image was approximately 60x and a 1 mm wide area of retina was in view. This prototype TSCM system demonstrates that images of a retina in vivo are obtainable with confocal microscopy and that the sharpness is comparable to standard fundus camera photography. Further modifications to improve the light level and alterations in the design of the objective should improve the quality of the images obtained and achieve the enhanced resolution of which, in theory, the confocal microscope is capable.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)362-366
Number of pages5
JournalScanning
Volume18
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1996
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

retina
Microscopes
microscopes
Scanning
scanning
Confocal microscopy
Lenses
Cameras
cameras
lenses
retinal images
microscopy
Mercury vapor lamps
Imaging techniques
nerve fibers
mercury lamps
cornea
blood vessels
photography
rabbits

Keywords

  • Confocal microscopy
  • Nerve fiber layer
  • Retina

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation

Cite this

Mathers, W., Littlefield, T., Lakes, R., Lane, J. A., & Daley, T. E. (1996). Observation of the retina using the tandem scanning confocal microscope. Scanning, 18(5), 362-366.

Observation of the retina using the tandem scanning confocal microscope. / Mathers, William; Littlefield, T.; Lakes, R.; Lane, J. A.; Daley, T. E.

In: Scanning, Vol. 18, No. 5, 1996, p. 362-366.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mathers, W, Littlefield, T, Lakes, R, Lane, JA & Daley, TE 1996, 'Observation of the retina using the tandem scanning confocal microscope', Scanning, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 362-366.
Mathers W, Littlefield T, Lakes R, Lane JA, Daley TE. Observation of the retina using the tandem scanning confocal microscope. Scanning. 1996;18(5):362-366.
Mathers, William ; Littlefield, T. ; Lakes, R. ; Lane, J. A. ; Daley, T. E. / Observation of the retina using the tandem scanning confocal microscope. In: Scanning. 1996 ; Vol. 18, No. 5. pp. 362-366.
@article{3cd8f73eec3c44e492ec9226a254836e,
title = "Observation of the retina using the tandem scanning confocal microscope",
abstract = "A tandem scanning confocal microscope (TSCM) is currently being used to obtain high-resolution images of the human cornea in vivo. Advantages of confocal microscopy for in vivo imaging include optical sectioning and increased contrast through removal of scattered light. We have adapted the TSCM to view the retina in vivo by constructing an applanating lens and fitting the microscope with an imaging-intensifying camera of increased sensitivity. The microscope uses a spinning dics with 40,000 holes, each of 30 microns diameter, and a 100 W mercury are lamp light source with a 455 nm long pass filter. The applanating lens is composed of three elements, two of which are movable for focusing. Images of a rabbit retina were obtained in vivo revealing the nerve fiber layer and blood vessels around the optic disc. The power density at the retina was calculated to be 3 mW/cm2, which is well below the power levels of a direct or indirect ophthalmoscope. Magnification of the retinal image was approximately 60x and a 1 mm wide area of retina was in view. This prototype TSCM system demonstrates that images of a retina in vivo are obtainable with confocal microscopy and that the sharpness is comparable to standard fundus camera photography. Further modifications to improve the light level and alterations in the design of the objective should improve the quality of the images obtained and achieve the enhanced resolution of which, in theory, the confocal microscope is capable.",
keywords = "Confocal microscopy, Nerve fiber layer, Retina",
author = "William Mathers and T. Littlefield and R. Lakes and Lane, {J. A.} and Daley, {T. E.}",
year = "1996",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "18",
pages = "362--366",
journal = "Scanning",
issn = "0161-0457",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Inc.",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Observation of the retina using the tandem scanning confocal microscope

AU - Mathers, William

AU - Littlefield, T.

AU - Lakes, R.

AU - Lane, J. A.

AU - Daley, T. E.

PY - 1996

Y1 - 1996

N2 - A tandem scanning confocal microscope (TSCM) is currently being used to obtain high-resolution images of the human cornea in vivo. Advantages of confocal microscopy for in vivo imaging include optical sectioning and increased contrast through removal of scattered light. We have adapted the TSCM to view the retina in vivo by constructing an applanating lens and fitting the microscope with an imaging-intensifying camera of increased sensitivity. The microscope uses a spinning dics with 40,000 holes, each of 30 microns diameter, and a 100 W mercury are lamp light source with a 455 nm long pass filter. The applanating lens is composed of three elements, two of which are movable for focusing. Images of a rabbit retina were obtained in vivo revealing the nerve fiber layer and blood vessels around the optic disc. The power density at the retina was calculated to be 3 mW/cm2, which is well below the power levels of a direct or indirect ophthalmoscope. Magnification of the retinal image was approximately 60x and a 1 mm wide area of retina was in view. This prototype TSCM system demonstrates that images of a retina in vivo are obtainable with confocal microscopy and that the sharpness is comparable to standard fundus camera photography. Further modifications to improve the light level and alterations in the design of the objective should improve the quality of the images obtained and achieve the enhanced resolution of which, in theory, the confocal microscope is capable.

AB - A tandem scanning confocal microscope (TSCM) is currently being used to obtain high-resolution images of the human cornea in vivo. Advantages of confocal microscopy for in vivo imaging include optical sectioning and increased contrast through removal of scattered light. We have adapted the TSCM to view the retina in vivo by constructing an applanating lens and fitting the microscope with an imaging-intensifying camera of increased sensitivity. The microscope uses a spinning dics with 40,000 holes, each of 30 microns diameter, and a 100 W mercury are lamp light source with a 455 nm long pass filter. The applanating lens is composed of three elements, two of which are movable for focusing. Images of a rabbit retina were obtained in vivo revealing the nerve fiber layer and blood vessels around the optic disc. The power density at the retina was calculated to be 3 mW/cm2, which is well below the power levels of a direct or indirect ophthalmoscope. Magnification of the retinal image was approximately 60x and a 1 mm wide area of retina was in view. This prototype TSCM system demonstrates that images of a retina in vivo are obtainable with confocal microscopy and that the sharpness is comparable to standard fundus camera photography. Further modifications to improve the light level and alterations in the design of the objective should improve the quality of the images obtained and achieve the enhanced resolution of which, in theory, the confocal microscope is capable.

KW - Confocal microscopy

KW - Nerve fiber layer

KW - Retina

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0030317571&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0030317571&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 8765612

AN - SCOPUS:0030317571

VL - 18

SP - 362

EP - 366

JO - Scanning

JF - Scanning

SN - 0161-0457

IS - 5

ER -