Nutritional manipulation of primate retinas, V

Effects of lutein, zeaxanthin, and n-3 fatty acids on retinal sensitivity to blue-light-induced damage

Felix M. Barker, D. Max Snodderly, Elizabeth J. Johnson, Wolfgang Schalch, Wolfgang Koepcke, Joachim Gerss, Martha Neuringer

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    85 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Purpose. Blue-light photooxidative damage has been implicated in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The macular pigment xanthophylls lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) and n-3 fatty acids may reduce this damage and lower the risk of AMD. This study investigated the effects of the lifelong absence of xanthophylls followed by L or Z supplementation, combined with the effects of n-3 fatty acid deficiency, on acute blue-light photochemical damage. Methods. Subjects included eight rhesus monkeys with no lifelong intake of xanthophylls and no detectable macular pigment. Of these, four had low n-3 fatty acid intake and four had adequate intakes. Control subjects had typical L, Z, and n-3 fatty acid intake. Retinas received 150-μm-diameter exposures of low-power 476-nm laser light at 0.5 mm (~2°) eccentricity, which is adjacent to the macular pigment peak, and parafoveally at 1.5 mm (~6°). Exposures of xanthophyll-free animals were repeated after supplementation with pure L or Z for 22 to 28 weeks. Ophthalmoscopically visible lesion areas were plotted as a function of exposure energy, with greater slopes of the regression lines indicating greater sensitivity to damage. Results. In control animals, the fovea was less sensitive to blue-light-induced damage than the parafovea. Foveal protection was absent in xanthophyll-free animals but was evident after supplementation. In the parafovea, animals low in n-3 fatty acids showed greater sensitivity to damage than animals with adequate levels. Conclusions. After long-term xanthophyll deficiency, L or Z supplementation protected the fovea from blue light-induced damage, whereas adequate n-3 fatty acid levels reduced the damage in the parafovea.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)3934-3942
    Number of pages9
    JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
    Volume52
    Issue number7
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jun 2011

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    Xanthophylls
    Lutein
    Omega-3 Fatty Acids
    Primates
    Retina
    Light
    Macular Degeneration
    Macaca mulatta
    Zeaxanthins
    Lasers
    Macular Pigment

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Ophthalmology
    • Sensory Systems
    • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

    Cite this

    Nutritional manipulation of primate retinas, V : Effects of lutein, zeaxanthin, and n-3 fatty acids on retinal sensitivity to blue-light-induced damage. / Barker, Felix M.; Snodderly, D. Max; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Schalch, Wolfgang; Koepcke, Wolfgang; Gerss, Joachim; Neuringer, Martha.

    In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Vol. 52, No. 7, 06.2011, p. 3934-3942.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Barker, Felix M. ; Snodderly, D. Max ; Johnson, Elizabeth J. ; Schalch, Wolfgang ; Koepcke, Wolfgang ; Gerss, Joachim ; Neuringer, Martha. / Nutritional manipulation of primate retinas, V : Effects of lutein, zeaxanthin, and n-3 fatty acids on retinal sensitivity to blue-light-induced damage. In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2011 ; Vol. 52, No. 7. pp. 3934-3942.
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    abstract = "Purpose. Blue-light photooxidative damage has been implicated in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The macular pigment xanthophylls lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) and n-3 fatty acids may reduce this damage and lower the risk of AMD. This study investigated the effects of the lifelong absence of xanthophylls followed by L or Z supplementation, combined with the effects of n-3 fatty acid deficiency, on acute blue-light photochemical damage. Methods. Subjects included eight rhesus monkeys with no lifelong intake of xanthophylls and no detectable macular pigment. Of these, four had low n-3 fatty acid intake and four had adequate intakes. Control subjects had typical L, Z, and n-3 fatty acid intake. Retinas received 150-μm-diameter exposures of low-power 476-nm laser light at 0.5 mm (~2°) eccentricity, which is adjacent to the macular pigment peak, and parafoveally at 1.5 mm (~6°). Exposures of xanthophyll-free animals were repeated after supplementation with pure L or Z for 22 to 28 weeks. Ophthalmoscopically visible lesion areas were plotted as a function of exposure energy, with greater slopes of the regression lines indicating greater sensitivity to damage. Results. In control animals, the fovea was less sensitive to blue-light-induced damage than the parafovea. Foveal protection was absent in xanthophyll-free animals but was evident after supplementation. In the parafovea, animals low in n-3 fatty acids showed greater sensitivity to damage than animals with adequate levels. Conclusions. After long-term xanthophyll deficiency, L or Z supplementation protected the fovea from blue light-induced damage, whereas adequate n-3 fatty acid levels reduced the damage in the parafovea.",
    author = "Barker, {Felix M.} and Snodderly, {D. Max} and Johnson, {Elizabeth J.} and Wolfgang Schalch and Wolfgang Koepcke and Joachim Gerss and Martha Neuringer",
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    T2 - Effects of lutein, zeaxanthin, and n-3 fatty acids on retinal sensitivity to blue-light-induced damage

    AU - Barker, Felix M.

    AU - Snodderly, D. Max

    AU - Johnson, Elizabeth J.

    AU - Schalch, Wolfgang

    AU - Koepcke, Wolfgang

    AU - Gerss, Joachim

    AU - Neuringer, Martha

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    N2 - Purpose. Blue-light photooxidative damage has been implicated in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The macular pigment xanthophylls lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) and n-3 fatty acids may reduce this damage and lower the risk of AMD. This study investigated the effects of the lifelong absence of xanthophylls followed by L or Z supplementation, combined with the effects of n-3 fatty acid deficiency, on acute blue-light photochemical damage. Methods. Subjects included eight rhesus monkeys with no lifelong intake of xanthophylls and no detectable macular pigment. Of these, four had low n-3 fatty acid intake and four had adequate intakes. Control subjects had typical L, Z, and n-3 fatty acid intake. Retinas received 150-μm-diameter exposures of low-power 476-nm laser light at 0.5 mm (~2°) eccentricity, which is adjacent to the macular pigment peak, and parafoveally at 1.5 mm (~6°). Exposures of xanthophyll-free animals were repeated after supplementation with pure L or Z for 22 to 28 weeks. Ophthalmoscopically visible lesion areas were plotted as a function of exposure energy, with greater slopes of the regression lines indicating greater sensitivity to damage. Results. In control animals, the fovea was less sensitive to blue-light-induced damage than the parafovea. Foveal protection was absent in xanthophyll-free animals but was evident after supplementation. In the parafovea, animals low in n-3 fatty acids showed greater sensitivity to damage than animals with adequate levels. Conclusions. After long-term xanthophyll deficiency, L or Z supplementation protected the fovea from blue light-induced damage, whereas adequate n-3 fatty acid levels reduced the damage in the parafovea.

    AB - Purpose. Blue-light photooxidative damage has been implicated in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The macular pigment xanthophylls lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) and n-3 fatty acids may reduce this damage and lower the risk of AMD. This study investigated the effects of the lifelong absence of xanthophylls followed by L or Z supplementation, combined with the effects of n-3 fatty acid deficiency, on acute blue-light photochemical damage. Methods. Subjects included eight rhesus monkeys with no lifelong intake of xanthophylls and no detectable macular pigment. Of these, four had low n-3 fatty acid intake and four had adequate intakes. Control subjects had typical L, Z, and n-3 fatty acid intake. Retinas received 150-μm-diameter exposures of low-power 476-nm laser light at 0.5 mm (~2°) eccentricity, which is adjacent to the macular pigment peak, and parafoveally at 1.5 mm (~6°). Exposures of xanthophyll-free animals were repeated after supplementation with pure L or Z for 22 to 28 weeks. Ophthalmoscopically visible lesion areas were plotted as a function of exposure energy, with greater slopes of the regression lines indicating greater sensitivity to damage. Results. In control animals, the fovea was less sensitive to blue-light-induced damage than the parafovea. Foveal protection was absent in xanthophyll-free animals but was evident after supplementation. In the parafovea, animals low in n-3 fatty acids showed greater sensitivity to damage than animals with adequate levels. Conclusions. After long-term xanthophyll deficiency, L or Z supplementation protected the fovea from blue light-induced damage, whereas adequate n-3 fatty acid levels reduced the damage in the parafovea.

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