Nutritional manipulation of primate retinas, I: Effects of lutein or zeaxanthin supplements on serum and macular pigment in xanthophyll-free Rheus monkeys

Martha Neuringer, Marita M. Sandstrom, Elizabeth J. Johnson, D. Max Snodderly

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    98 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    PURPOSE. The xanthophylls lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are the primary components of macular pigment (MP) and may protect the macula from age-related degeneration (AMD). In this study, L or Z was fed to rhesus monkeys reared on xanthophyll-free diets to follow the accumulation of serum carotenoids and MP over time. METHODS. Eighteen rhesus monkeys were fed xanthophyll-free semipurified diets from birth until 7 to 16 years, The diets of six were then supplemented with pure L and six with pure Z at 3.9 μmol/kg per day (2.2 mg/kg per day) for 24 to 56 weeks. At baseline and 4- to 12-week intervals during supplementation, serum carotenoids were measured by HPLC, and MP density was estimated by two-wavelength reflectometry. Serum carotenoids and MP were also measured in monkeys fed a stock diet. RESULTS. Monkeys fed xanthophyll-free diets had no L or Z in serum and no detectable MP. During supplementation, serum L or Z increased rapidly over the first 4 weeks and from 16 weeks onward maintained similar levels, both several times higher than in stock-diet-fed monkeys. The central peak of MP optical density increased to a relatively steady level by 24 to 32 weeks in both L- and Z-fed groups, Rhesus monkeys fed a stock diet had lower blood concentrations of L than those found in humans and other nonhuman primates. CONCLUSIONS. Rhesus monkeys respond to either dietary L or Z supplementation with increases in serum xanthophylls and MP, even after life-long xanthophyll deficiency. These animals provide a potential model to study mechanisms of protection from AMD.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)3234-3243
    Number of pages10
    JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
    Volume45
    Issue number9
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Sep 2004

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    Xanthophylls
    Lutein
    Primates
    Haplorhini
    Retina
    Diet
    Macaca mulatta
    Serum
    Carotenoids
    Zeaxanthins
    Macular Pigment
    High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
    Parturition

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Ophthalmology

    Cite this

    Nutritional manipulation of primate retinas, I : Effects of lutein or zeaxanthin supplements on serum and macular pigment in xanthophyll-free Rheus monkeys. / Neuringer, Martha; Sandstrom, Marita M.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Snodderly, D. Max.

    In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Vol. 45, No. 9, 09.2004, p. 3234-3243.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    abstract = "PURPOSE. The xanthophylls lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are the primary components of macular pigment (MP) and may protect the macula from age-related degeneration (AMD). In this study, L or Z was fed to rhesus monkeys reared on xanthophyll-free diets to follow the accumulation of serum carotenoids and MP over time. METHODS. Eighteen rhesus monkeys were fed xanthophyll-free semipurified diets from birth until 7 to 16 years, The diets of six were then supplemented with pure L and six with pure Z at 3.9 μmol/kg per day (2.2 mg/kg per day) for 24 to 56 weeks. At baseline and 4- to 12-week intervals during supplementation, serum carotenoids were measured by HPLC, and MP density was estimated by two-wavelength reflectometry. Serum carotenoids and MP were also measured in monkeys fed a stock diet. RESULTS. Monkeys fed xanthophyll-free diets had no L or Z in serum and no detectable MP. During supplementation, serum L or Z increased rapidly over the first 4 weeks and from 16 weeks onward maintained similar levels, both several times higher than in stock-diet-fed monkeys. The central peak of MP optical density increased to a relatively steady level by 24 to 32 weeks in both L- and Z-fed groups, Rhesus monkeys fed a stock diet had lower blood concentrations of L than those found in humans and other nonhuman primates. CONCLUSIONS. Rhesus monkeys respond to either dietary L or Z supplementation with increases in serum xanthophylls and MP, even after life-long xanthophyll deficiency. These animals provide a potential model to study mechanisms of protection from AMD.",
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    T2 - Effects of lutein or zeaxanthin supplements on serum and macular pigment in xanthophyll-free Rheus monkeys

    AU - Neuringer, Martha

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    AU - Johnson, Elizabeth J.

    AU - Snodderly, D. Max

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    N2 - PURPOSE. The xanthophylls lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are the primary components of macular pigment (MP) and may protect the macula from age-related degeneration (AMD). In this study, L or Z was fed to rhesus monkeys reared on xanthophyll-free diets to follow the accumulation of serum carotenoids and MP over time. METHODS. Eighteen rhesus monkeys were fed xanthophyll-free semipurified diets from birth until 7 to 16 years, The diets of six were then supplemented with pure L and six with pure Z at 3.9 μmol/kg per day (2.2 mg/kg per day) for 24 to 56 weeks. At baseline and 4- to 12-week intervals during supplementation, serum carotenoids were measured by HPLC, and MP density was estimated by two-wavelength reflectometry. Serum carotenoids and MP were also measured in monkeys fed a stock diet. RESULTS. Monkeys fed xanthophyll-free diets had no L or Z in serum and no detectable MP. During supplementation, serum L or Z increased rapidly over the first 4 weeks and from 16 weeks onward maintained similar levels, both several times higher than in stock-diet-fed monkeys. The central peak of MP optical density increased to a relatively steady level by 24 to 32 weeks in both L- and Z-fed groups, Rhesus monkeys fed a stock diet had lower blood concentrations of L than those found in humans and other nonhuman primates. CONCLUSIONS. Rhesus monkeys respond to either dietary L or Z supplementation with increases in serum xanthophylls and MP, even after life-long xanthophyll deficiency. These animals provide a potential model to study mechanisms of protection from AMD.

    AB - PURPOSE. The xanthophylls lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are the primary components of macular pigment (MP) and may protect the macula from age-related degeneration (AMD). In this study, L or Z was fed to rhesus monkeys reared on xanthophyll-free diets to follow the accumulation of serum carotenoids and MP over time. METHODS. Eighteen rhesus monkeys were fed xanthophyll-free semipurified diets from birth until 7 to 16 years, The diets of six were then supplemented with pure L and six with pure Z at 3.9 μmol/kg per day (2.2 mg/kg per day) for 24 to 56 weeks. At baseline and 4- to 12-week intervals during supplementation, serum carotenoids were measured by HPLC, and MP density was estimated by two-wavelength reflectometry. Serum carotenoids and MP were also measured in monkeys fed a stock diet. RESULTS. Monkeys fed xanthophyll-free diets had no L or Z in serum and no detectable MP. During supplementation, serum L or Z increased rapidly over the first 4 weeks and from 16 weeks onward maintained similar levels, both several times higher than in stock-diet-fed monkeys. The central peak of MP optical density increased to a relatively steady level by 24 to 32 weeks in both L- and Z-fed groups, Rhesus monkeys fed a stock diet had lower blood concentrations of L than those found in humans and other nonhuman primates. CONCLUSIONS. Rhesus monkeys respond to either dietary L or Z supplementation with increases in serum xanthophylls and MP, even after life-long xanthophyll deficiency. These animals provide a potential model to study mechanisms of protection from AMD.

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