Nutritional manipulation of primate retinas, I: Effects of lutein or zeaxanthin supplements on serum and macular pigment in xanthophyll-free Rheus monkeys

Martha Neuringer, Marita M. Sandstrom, Elizabeth J. Johnson, D. Max Snodderly

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    100 Scopus citations


    PURPOSE. The xanthophylls lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are the primary components of macular pigment (MP) and may protect the macula from age-related degeneration (AMD). In this study, L or Z was fed to rhesus monkeys reared on xanthophyll-free diets to follow the accumulation of serum carotenoids and MP over time. METHODS. Eighteen rhesus monkeys were fed xanthophyll-free semipurified diets from birth until 7 to 16 years, The diets of six were then supplemented with pure L and six with pure Z at 3.9 μmol/kg per day (2.2 mg/kg per day) for 24 to 56 weeks. At baseline and 4- to 12-week intervals during supplementation, serum carotenoids were measured by HPLC, and MP density was estimated by two-wavelength reflectometry. Serum carotenoids and MP were also measured in monkeys fed a stock diet. RESULTS. Monkeys fed xanthophyll-free diets had no L or Z in serum and no detectable MP. During supplementation, serum L or Z increased rapidly over the first 4 weeks and from 16 weeks onward maintained similar levels, both several times higher than in stock-diet-fed monkeys. The central peak of MP optical density increased to a relatively steady level by 24 to 32 weeks in both L- and Z-fed groups, Rhesus monkeys fed a stock diet had lower blood concentrations of L than those found in humans and other nonhuman primates. CONCLUSIONS. Rhesus monkeys respond to either dietary L or Z supplementation with increases in serum xanthophylls and MP, even after life-long xanthophyll deficiency. These animals provide a potential model to study mechanisms of protection from AMD.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)3234-3243
    Number of pages10
    JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
    Issue number9
    StatePublished - Sep 1 2004


    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Ophthalmology
    • Sensory Systems
    • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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