Novel feedback loop between M2 macrophages/microglia and regulatory B cells in estrogen-protected EAE mice

Gil Benedek, Jun Zhang, Ha Nguyen, Gail Kent, Hilary Seifert, Arthur A. Vandenbark, Halina Offner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Scopus citations

Abstract

Immunoregulatory sex hormones, including estrogen and estriol, may prevent relapses in multiple sclerosis during pregnancy. Our previous studies have demonstrated that regulatory B cells are crucial for estrogen-mediated protection against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Herein, we demonstrate an estrogen-dependent induction of alternatively activated (M2) macrophages/microglia that results in an increased frequency of regulatory B cells in the spinal cord of estrogen treated mice with EAE. We further demonstrate that cultured M2-polarized microglia promote the induction of regulatory B cells. Our study suggests that estrogen neuroprotection induces a regulatory feedback loop between M2 macrophages/microglia and regulatory B cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)59-67
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Neuroimmunology
Volume305
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 15 2017

Keywords

  • EAE
  • Estrogen
  • IL-10
  • M1/2 microglia
  • Regulatory B cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

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