Non-specific orbital inflammation: Current understanding and unmet needs

Min Joung Lee, Stephen R. Planck, Dongseok Choi, Christina A. Harrington, David J. Wilson, Roger A. Dailey, John D. Ng, Eric A. Steele, Bronwyn E. Hamilton, Sang In Khwarg, James T. Rosenbaum

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Non-specific orbital inflammation (NSOI) is a noninfectious inflammatory condition of the orbit. Although it is generally considered the most common diagnosis derived from an orbital biopsy, it is a diagnosis of exclusion, meaning that the diagnosis requires exclusion of a systemic process or another identifiable etiology of orbital inflammation. The clinical diagnosis of NSOI is ill-defined, but it is typically characterized by acute orbital signs and symptoms, including pain, proptosis, periorbital edema, chemosis, diplopia, and less commonly visual disturbance. NSOI poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge: The clinical presentations and histological findings are heterogeneous, and there are no specific diagnostic criteria or treatment guidelines. The etiology and pathogenesis of NSOI are poorly understood. Here we recapitulate our current clinical understanding of NSOI, with an emphasis on the most recent findings on clinical characteristics, imaging findings, and treatment outcomes. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of NSOI and its implications are presented and discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100885
JournalProgress in Retinal and Eye Research
StatePublished - Mar 2021


  • Gene-expression profiling
  • Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
  • IgG4-related ophthalmic diseases
  • Nonspecific orbital inflammation
  • Orbital sarcoidosis
  • Thyroid eye disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems


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