Non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage as a refinement for safely obtaining high-quality samples from macaques

Cassandra R. Moats, Kurt T. Randall, Tonya M. Swanson, Hugh B. Crank, Kimberly M. Armantrout, Aaron M. Barber-Axthelm, Nicole D. Burnett, Theodore R. Hobbs, Lauren D. Martin, Roxanne M. Gilbride, Scott Hansen, Jeremy V. Smedley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (NB-BAL) is a minimally invasive diagnostic and research tool used to sample the cells of lower airways and alveoli without using a bronchoscope. Our study compared NB-BAL and bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (B-BAL) in terms of costs, cell yields, and the number of post-procedural complications in macaques. We also analyzed procedure times, BAL fluid volume yields, and vital signs in a subset of animals that underwent NB-BAL. Compared with the B-BAL technique, NB-BAL was less expensive to perform, with fewer complications, fewer animals requiring temporary or permanent cessation of BALs, and higher cell yields per mL of recovered saline. The average procedure time for NB-BAL was 6.8 ± 1.6 min, and the average NB-BAL lavage volume yield was 76 ± 9%. We found no significant differences in respiration rate before, during, or after NB-BAL but did find significant differences in heart rate and oxygen saturation (SpO2). This study demonstrates that NB-BAL is a simple, cost-effective, and safe alternative to B-BAL that results in higher cell yields per mL, improved animal welfare, and fewer missed time points, and thus constitutes a refinement over the B-BAL in macaques.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)520-525
Number of pages6
JournalComparative Medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage as a refinement for safely obtaining high-quality samples from macaques'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this