Negative regulation of the NF-κB transcription factor is essential for tissue homeostasis in response to stress and inflammation. NF-κB activity is regulated by a variety of biochemical mechanisms including phosphorylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination. In this study, we provide the first experimental evidence that NF-κB is regulated by SUMOylation, where the RelA subunit of NF-κB is SUMOylated by PIAS3, a member of the PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) protein family with E3 SUMO ligase activity. PIAS3-mediated NF-κB repression was compromised by either RelA mutant resistant to SUMOylation or PIAS3 mutant defective in SUMOylation. PIAS3-mediated SUMOylation of endogenous RelA was induced by NF-κB activation thus forming a negative regulatory loop. The SUMOylation of endogenous RelA was enhanced in IκBα null as compared with wild type fibroblasts. The RelA SUMOylation was induced by TNFα but not leptomycin B mediated RelA nuclear translocation. Furthermore, RelA mutants defective in DNA binding were not SUMOylated by PIAS3, suggesting that RelA DNA binding is a signal for PIAS3-mediated SUMOylation. These results support a novel negative feedback mechanism for NF-κB regulation by PIAS3-mediated RelA SUMOylation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)