Virus-specific antibodies protect individuals against a wide variety of viral infections. To assess whether human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV- 1) envelope-specific antibodies confer resistance against primate lentivirus infections, we purified immunoglobulin (IgG) from chimpanzees infected with several different HIV-1 isolates, and used this for passive immunization of pig-tailed macaques. These monkeys were subsequently challenged intravenously with a chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) bearing an envelope glycoprotein derived form HIV-1(DH12), a dual-tropic primary virus isolate. Here we show that anti-SHIV neutralizing activity, determined in vitro using an assay measuring loss of infectivity, is the absolute requirement for antibody-mediated protection in vivo. Using an assay that measures 100% neutralization, the titer in plasma for complete protection of the SHIV-challenged macaques was in the range of 1:5-1:8. The HIV-1-specific neutralizing antibodies studied are able to bind to native gp120 present on infectious virus particles. Administration of non-neutralizing anti-HIV IgG neither inhibited nor enhanced a subsequent SHIV infection.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)