The neuroleptic-induced motor system side effects of acute extrapyramidal syndromes (EPS) and tardive dyskinesia (TD) are the major limitations of these drugs. Effective strategies for managing these problems are based on the clinical presentations, pathophysiological processes, and a complex interaction of patient and treatment variables. New concepts about the causes and long-term outcome of acute EPS and TD are emerging to challenge some of the commonly held views about these syndromes. The primary method of preventing undue side effects is to use the lowest effective dose of both neuroleptic and anti-EPS drugs. The pressing need is for novel compounds which treat schizophrenia and are free of the undesirable motor system effects (a nonneuroleptic neuroleptic).
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