Infants, children, and adolescents with congenital heart disease are known to be at elevated risk of neurodevelopmental deficits compared to healthy children, with the risk and severity of impairment increasing with greater complexity of the cardiac lesion. These deficits may intensify with time, becoming more pronounced as children attempt to master more complex tasks requiring integration of multiple cognitive domains. These deficits do not disappear upon transition to adulthood and there are increasing numbers of adults with congenital heart disease who are now reaching middle-adulthood and older-adulthood. The neurocognitive functioning of adults with congenital heart disease, however, has not received the attention of pediatric neurodevelopment outcomes and remains largely unknown. Challenges that may present in adulthood include poor performance in higher education as well as difficulties maintaining employment or interpersonal relationships. In addition to potential neurodevelopmental deficits, children and adults with congenital heart disease also face psychological and social challenges. In this review, we consider neurodevelopmental and psychosocial outcomes of individuals with congenital heart disease across the lifespan.
- Congenital heart disease
- Quality of life
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine