Neuroactive Steroid (3α,5α)3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP) and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine MCP-1 Levels in Hippocampus CA1 are Correlated with Voluntary Ethanol Consumption in Cynomolgus Monkey

Matthew C. Beattie, Christopher S. Reguyal, Patrizia Porcu, James B. Daunais, Kathleen (Kathy) Grant, A. Leslie Morrow

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    3 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Background: Neuroactive steroids such as (3α,5α)3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP, allopregnanolone) are potent neuromodulators that enhance GABAergic neurotransmission and produce inhibitory neurobehavioral and anti-inflammatory effects. Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption reduces 3α,5α-THP levels in human plasma, but has brain region- and species-specific effects on central nervous system levels of 3α,5α-THP. We explored the relationship between 3α,5α-THP levels in the hippocampus and voluntary EtOH consumption in the cynomolgus monkey following daily self-administration of EtOH for 12 months and further examined the relationship with hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function prior to EtOH exposure. We simultaneously explored hippocampus levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in the neuroimmune response to EtOH, following chronic self-administration. Methods: Monkeys were subjected to scheduled induction of water and EtOH consumption (0 to 1.5 g/kg) over 4 months, followed by free access to EtOH or water for 22 h/d over 12 months. Immunohistochemistry was performed using an anti-3α,5α-THP or anti-MCP-1 antibody. Prolonged voluntary drinking resulted in individual differences in EtOH consumption that ranged from 1.2 to 4.2 g/kg/d over 12 months. Results: Prolonged EtOH consumption increased cellular 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity by 12 ± 2% (p < 0.05) and reduced MCP-1 immunoreactivity by 23 ± 9% (p < 0.05) in the hippocampus CA1. In both cases, the effect of EtOH was most pronounced in heavy drinkers that consumed ≥3 g/kg for ≥20% of days. 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity was positively correlated with average daily EtOH intake (Spearman r = 0.76, p < 0.05) and dexamethasone inhibition of HPA axis function (Spearman r = 0.9, p < 0.05). In contrast, MCP-1 immunoreactivity was negatively correlated with average daily EtOH intake (Spearman r = −0.78, p < 0.05) and dexamethasone suppression of HPA axis function (Spearman r = −0.76, p < 0.05). Finally, 3α,5α-THP and MCP-1 immunoreactivity were inversely correlated with each other (Spearman r = −0.68, p < 0.05). Conclusions: These data indicate that voluntary, long-term EtOH consumption results in higher levels of 3α,5α-THP, while decreasing levels of MCP-1 in the CA1 hippocampus, and that both changes may be linked to HPA axis function and the magnitude of voluntary EtOH consumption.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)12-20
    Number of pages9
    JournalAlcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
    Volume42
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

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    Pregnanolone
    Macaca fascicularis
    Chemokine CCL2
    Hippocampus
    Ethanol
    Steroids
    Cytokines
    Self Administration
    Dexamethasone
    Drinking
    Plasma (human)
    Water
    Neurology
    Individuality
    Synaptic Transmission
    Haplorhini
    Neurotransmitter Agents
    Brain
    Anti-Inflammatory Agents
    Central Nervous System

    Keywords

    • Chronic Ethanol
    • Cytokine
    • Monkey
    • Neuroactive Steroids
    • Neuroimmune

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Medicine (miscellaneous)
    • Toxicology
    • Psychiatry and Mental health

    Cite this

    Neuroactive Steroid (3α,5α)3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP) and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine MCP-1 Levels in Hippocampus CA1 are Correlated with Voluntary Ethanol Consumption in Cynomolgus Monkey. / Beattie, Matthew C.; Reguyal, Christopher S.; Porcu, Patrizia; Daunais, James B.; Grant, Kathleen (Kathy); Morrow, A. Leslie.

    In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, Vol. 42, No. 1, 01.01.2018, p. 12-20.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    title = "Neuroactive Steroid (3α,5α)3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP) and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine MCP-1 Levels in Hippocampus CA1 are Correlated with Voluntary Ethanol Consumption in Cynomolgus Monkey",
    abstract = "Background: Neuroactive steroids such as (3α,5α)3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP, allopregnanolone) are potent neuromodulators that enhance GABAergic neurotransmission and produce inhibitory neurobehavioral and anti-inflammatory effects. Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption reduces 3α,5α-THP levels in human plasma, but has brain region- and species-specific effects on central nervous system levels of 3α,5α-THP. We explored the relationship between 3α,5α-THP levels in the hippocampus and voluntary EtOH consumption in the cynomolgus monkey following daily self-administration of EtOH for 12 months and further examined the relationship with hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function prior to EtOH exposure. We simultaneously explored hippocampus levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in the neuroimmune response to EtOH, following chronic self-administration. Methods: Monkeys were subjected to scheduled induction of water and EtOH consumption (0 to 1.5 g/kg) over 4 months, followed by free access to EtOH or water for 22 h/d over 12 months. Immunohistochemistry was performed using an anti-3α,5α-THP or anti-MCP-1 antibody. Prolonged voluntary drinking resulted in individual differences in EtOH consumption that ranged from 1.2 to 4.2 g/kg/d over 12 months. Results: Prolonged EtOH consumption increased cellular 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity by 12 ± 2{\%} (p < 0.05) and reduced MCP-1 immunoreactivity by 23 ± 9{\%} (p < 0.05) in the hippocampus CA1. In both cases, the effect of EtOH was most pronounced in heavy drinkers that consumed ≥3 g/kg for ≥20{\%} of days. 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity was positively correlated with average daily EtOH intake (Spearman r = 0.76, p < 0.05) and dexamethasone inhibition of HPA axis function (Spearman r = 0.9, p < 0.05). In contrast, MCP-1 immunoreactivity was negatively correlated with average daily EtOH intake (Spearman r = −0.78, p < 0.05) and dexamethasone suppression of HPA axis function (Spearman r = −0.76, p < 0.05). Finally, 3α,5α-THP and MCP-1 immunoreactivity were inversely correlated with each other (Spearman r = −0.68, p < 0.05). Conclusions: These data indicate that voluntary, long-term EtOH consumption results in higher levels of 3α,5α-THP, while decreasing levels of MCP-1 in the CA1 hippocampus, and that both changes may be linked to HPA axis function and the magnitude of voluntary EtOH consumption.",
    keywords = "Chronic Ethanol, Cytokine, Monkey, Neuroactive Steroids, Neuroimmune",
    author = "Beattie, {Matthew C.} and Reguyal, {Christopher S.} and Patrizia Porcu and Daunais, {James B.} and Grant, {Kathleen (Kathy)} and Morrow, {A. Leslie}",
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    language = "English (US)",
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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Neuroactive Steroid (3α,5α)3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP) and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine MCP-1 Levels in Hippocampus CA1 are Correlated with Voluntary Ethanol Consumption in Cynomolgus Monkey

    AU - Beattie, Matthew C.

    AU - Reguyal, Christopher S.

    AU - Porcu, Patrizia

    AU - Daunais, James B.

    AU - Grant, Kathleen (Kathy)

    AU - Morrow, A. Leslie

    PY - 2018/1/1

    Y1 - 2018/1/1

    N2 - Background: Neuroactive steroids such as (3α,5α)3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP, allopregnanolone) are potent neuromodulators that enhance GABAergic neurotransmission and produce inhibitory neurobehavioral and anti-inflammatory effects. Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption reduces 3α,5α-THP levels in human plasma, but has brain region- and species-specific effects on central nervous system levels of 3α,5α-THP. We explored the relationship between 3α,5α-THP levels in the hippocampus and voluntary EtOH consumption in the cynomolgus monkey following daily self-administration of EtOH for 12 months and further examined the relationship with hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function prior to EtOH exposure. We simultaneously explored hippocampus levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in the neuroimmune response to EtOH, following chronic self-administration. Methods: Monkeys were subjected to scheduled induction of water and EtOH consumption (0 to 1.5 g/kg) over 4 months, followed by free access to EtOH or water for 22 h/d over 12 months. Immunohistochemistry was performed using an anti-3α,5α-THP or anti-MCP-1 antibody. Prolonged voluntary drinking resulted in individual differences in EtOH consumption that ranged from 1.2 to 4.2 g/kg/d over 12 months. Results: Prolonged EtOH consumption increased cellular 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity by 12 ± 2% (p < 0.05) and reduced MCP-1 immunoreactivity by 23 ± 9% (p < 0.05) in the hippocampus CA1. In both cases, the effect of EtOH was most pronounced in heavy drinkers that consumed ≥3 g/kg for ≥20% of days. 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity was positively correlated with average daily EtOH intake (Spearman r = 0.76, p < 0.05) and dexamethasone inhibition of HPA axis function (Spearman r = 0.9, p < 0.05). In contrast, MCP-1 immunoreactivity was negatively correlated with average daily EtOH intake (Spearman r = −0.78, p < 0.05) and dexamethasone suppression of HPA axis function (Spearman r = −0.76, p < 0.05). Finally, 3α,5α-THP and MCP-1 immunoreactivity were inversely correlated with each other (Spearman r = −0.68, p < 0.05). Conclusions: These data indicate that voluntary, long-term EtOH consumption results in higher levels of 3α,5α-THP, while decreasing levels of MCP-1 in the CA1 hippocampus, and that both changes may be linked to HPA axis function and the magnitude of voluntary EtOH consumption.

    AB - Background: Neuroactive steroids such as (3α,5α)3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP, allopregnanolone) are potent neuromodulators that enhance GABAergic neurotransmission and produce inhibitory neurobehavioral and anti-inflammatory effects. Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption reduces 3α,5α-THP levels in human plasma, but has brain region- and species-specific effects on central nervous system levels of 3α,5α-THP. We explored the relationship between 3α,5α-THP levels in the hippocampus and voluntary EtOH consumption in the cynomolgus monkey following daily self-administration of EtOH for 12 months and further examined the relationship with hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function prior to EtOH exposure. We simultaneously explored hippocampus levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in the neuroimmune response to EtOH, following chronic self-administration. Methods: Monkeys were subjected to scheduled induction of water and EtOH consumption (0 to 1.5 g/kg) over 4 months, followed by free access to EtOH or water for 22 h/d over 12 months. Immunohistochemistry was performed using an anti-3α,5α-THP or anti-MCP-1 antibody. Prolonged voluntary drinking resulted in individual differences in EtOH consumption that ranged from 1.2 to 4.2 g/kg/d over 12 months. Results: Prolonged EtOH consumption increased cellular 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity by 12 ± 2% (p < 0.05) and reduced MCP-1 immunoreactivity by 23 ± 9% (p < 0.05) in the hippocampus CA1. In both cases, the effect of EtOH was most pronounced in heavy drinkers that consumed ≥3 g/kg for ≥20% of days. 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity was positively correlated with average daily EtOH intake (Spearman r = 0.76, p < 0.05) and dexamethasone inhibition of HPA axis function (Spearman r = 0.9, p < 0.05). In contrast, MCP-1 immunoreactivity was negatively correlated with average daily EtOH intake (Spearman r = −0.78, p < 0.05) and dexamethasone suppression of HPA axis function (Spearman r = −0.76, p < 0.05). Finally, 3α,5α-THP and MCP-1 immunoreactivity were inversely correlated with each other (Spearman r = −0.68, p < 0.05). Conclusions: These data indicate that voluntary, long-term EtOH consumption results in higher levels of 3α,5α-THP, while decreasing levels of MCP-1 in the CA1 hippocampus, and that both changes may be linked to HPA axis function and the magnitude of voluntary EtOH consumption.

    KW - Chronic Ethanol

    KW - Cytokine

    KW - Monkey

    KW - Neuroactive Steroids

    KW - Neuroimmune

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