Myocardial contrast echocardiography assessment of perfusion abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Paola Roldan, Sriram Ravi, James Hodovan, J. Todd Belcik, Stephen Heitner, Ahmad Masri, Jonathan Lindner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Perfusion defects during stress can occur in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) from either structural or functional abnormalities of the coronary microcirculation. In this study, vasodilator stress myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) was used to quantify and spatially characterize hyperemic myocardial blood flow (MBF) deficits in HCM. Methods: Regadenoson stress MCE was performed in patients with septal-variant HCM (n = 17) and healthy control subjects (n = 15). The presence and spatial distribution (transmural diffuse, patchy, subendocardial) of perfusion defects was determined by semiquantitative analysis. Kinetic analysis of time-intensity data was used to quantify MBF, microvascular flux rate (β), and microvascular blood volume. In patients undergoing septal myectomy (n = 3), MCE was repeated > 1 years after surgery. Results: In HCM subjects, perfusion defects during stress occurred in the septum in 80%, and in non-hypertrophied regions in 40%. The majority of septal defects (83%) were patchy or subendocardial, while 67% of non-hypertrophied defects were transmural and diffuse. On quantitative analysis, hyperemic MBF was approximately 50% lower (p < 0.001) in the hypertrophied and non-hypertrophied regions of those with HCM compared to controls, largely based on an inability to augment β, although hypertrophic regions also had blood volume deficits. There was no correlation between hyperemic MBF and either percent fibrosis on magnetic resonance imaging or outflow gradient, yet those with higher degrees of fibrosis (≥ 5%) or severe gradients all had low septal MBF during regadenoson. Substantial improvement in hyperemic MBF was observed in two of the three subjects undergoing myectomy, both of whom had severe pre-surgical outflow gradients at rest. Conclusion: Perfusion defects on vasodilator MCE are common in HCM, particularly in those with extensive fibrosis, but have a different spatial pattern for the hypertrophied and non-hypertrophied segments, likely reflecting different contributions of functional and structural abnormalities. Improvement in hyperemic perfusion is possible in those undergoing septal myectomy to relieve obstruction. Trial registration: NCT02560467. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number23
JournalCardiovascular Ultrasound
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • Ischemia
  • Myocardial contrast echocardiography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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