Multivariate statistical analysis of surface enhanced Raman spectra of human serum for Alzheimer's disease diagnosis

Elena Ryzhikova, Nicole M. Ralbovsky, Lenka Halámková, Dzintra Celmins, Paula Malone, Eric Molho, Joseph Quinn, Earl A. Zimmerman, Igor K. Lednev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide and is characterized by progressive cognitive decline. Along with being incurable and lethal, AD is difficult to diagnose with high levels of accuracy. Blood serum from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients was analyzed by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. The obtained spectra were compared with spectra from healthy controls (HC) to develop a simple test for AD detection. Serum spectra from AD patients were further compared to spectra from patients with other neurodegenerative dementias (OD). Colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were used as the SERS-active substrates. Classification experiments involving serum SERS spectra using artificial neural networks (ANNs) achieved a diagnostic sensitivity around 96% for differentiating AD samples from HC samples in a binary model and 98% for differentiating AD, HC, and OD samples in a tertiary model. The results from this proof-of-concept study demonstrate the great potential of SERS blood serum analysis to be developed further into a novel clinical assay for the effective and accurate diagnosis of AD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3256
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number16
StatePublished - Aug 1 2019


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Artificial neural networks
  • Blood serum
  • Differential diagnosis
  • Genetic algorithm
  • Silver colloidal nanoparticles
  • Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering(all)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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