Multistage Carcinogenesis: Cell and Animal Models

M. Kulesz-Martin, X. Ouyang, A. Barling, J. R. Gallegos, Y. Liu, T. Medler

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Carcinogenesis is a multistage process that involves numerous etiologies that work at different stages of tumor development. Our ability to dissect oncogenic events is largely dependent on the availability of model systems that recapitulate human carcinogenesis at both the pathological and molecular levels. With progress in molecular and cell biology, studies with cell model systems have produced many important conceptual advances for our understanding of the mechanism of carcinogenesis. In parallel, animal models provide the tissue and the systemic contexts of carcinogenesis and serve to validate molecular predictions and targeting opportunities in cancer prevention and treatment. With the development of genetically engineered mouse models, the functional consequences and tissue dynamics of genetic alterations can be defined at discrete stages of carcinogenesis. The cooperative models that bridge cell culture techniques and corresponding animal models offer simple and quantitative approaches to evaluate the oncogenic potential of carcinogens (chemical, viral, and physical agents), immunity, as well as the roles of discrete candidate cancer genes in carcinogenesis. The choice of a model is of importance and should take into account the cell/tissue type of origin, the complexity of carcinogenesis, the variety of carcinogen and therapeutic reagents to be tested, and the relevance to human cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationCarcinogenesis
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages25
ISBN (Electronic)9780081006122
ISBN (Print)9780081006016
StatePublished - 2018


  • Animal model
  • Carcinogenesis
  • Cell model
  • Epithelial transformation
  • Hallmarks of cancer
  • Hepatocarcinogenesis
  • Initiation
  • Malignant conversion
  • Oncogenic pathways
  • P53
  • RAS
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Tumor progression
  • Tumor promotion
  • Tumorigenesis
  • Two-stage carcinogenesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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