Multispectral LEDs Eliminate Lipofuscin-Associated Autofluorescence for Immunohistochemistry and CD44 Variant Detection by in Situ Hybridization in Aging Human, non-Human Primate, and Murine Brain

Philip A. Adeniyi, Katie Anne Fopiano, Fatima Banine, Mariel Garcia, Xi Gong, C. Dirk Keene, Larry S. Sherman, Zsolt Bagi, Stephen A. Back

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

A major limitation of mechanistic studies in aging brains is the lack of routine methods to robustly visualize and discriminate the cellular distribution of tissue antigens using fluorescent immunohistochemical multi-labeling techniques. Although such approaches are routine in non-aging brains, they are not consistently feasible in the aging brain due to the progressive accumulation of autofluorescent pigments, particularly lipofuscin, which strongly excite and emit over a broad spectral range. Consequently, aging research has relied upon colorimetric antibody techniques, where discrimination of tissue antigens is often challenging. We report the application of a simple, reproducible, and affordable protocol using multispectral light-emitting diodes (mLEDs) exposure for the reduction/elimination of lipofuscin autofluorescence (LAF) in aging brain tissue from humans, non-human primates, and mice. The mLEDs lamp has a broad spectral range that spans from the UV to infrared range and includes spectra in the violet/blue and orange/red. After photo quenching, the LAF level was markedly reduced when the tissue background fluorescence before and after mLEDs exposure was compared (p < 0.0001) across the spectral range. LAF elimination was estimated at 95 ± 1%. This approach permitted robust specific fluorescent immunohistochemical co-visualization of commonly studied antigens in aging brains. We also successfully applied this method to specifically visualize CD44 variant expression in aging human cerebral white matter using RNAscope fluorescent in-situ hybridization. Photo quenching provides an attractive means to accelerate progress in aging research by increasing the number of molecules that can be topologically discriminated by fluorescence detection in brain tissue from normative or pathological aging.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalASN neuro
Volume14
DOIs
StatePublished - 2022

Keywords

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • light-emitting diodes
  • lipofuscin
  • photo-quenching
  • vascular dementia
  • white matter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Neurology

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