Cholecystectomy is one of the most common surgeries performed in the United States. Although complications are uncommon, the high incidence of this surgery means that a radiologist will likely encounter these complications in practice. Complications may arise in the immediate postoperative period or can be delayed for weeks, months, or years after surgery. Vague and nonspecific symptoms make clinical diagnosis challenging. As a result, multimodality imaging is important in postoperative evaluation. US and multidetec-tor CT are the usual first-line imaging modalities. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy, SPECT/CT, and MRI with conventional or gadox-etate hepatobiliary contrast material are important and comple-mentary modalities that are used for workup. The authors begin with a brief discussion of surgical technique and expected postoperative findings and then describe complications organized into four groups: (a) biliary complications, (b) stone-related complications, (c) iatrogenic complications, and (d) gallbladder complications. Biliary complications include bile leaks and bilomas, acute biliary obstruction, and biliary stricture. Stone-related complications include retained and recurrent stones and spillage of stones into the peritoneum. Iatrogenic complications include hemorrhage, vasculobiliary injury, arterial pseudoaneurysms, duodenal injury, and migration of clips. Gallbladder complications include recurrent cholecystitis after subtotal reconstituting cholecystectomy and un-expected gallbladder cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging