Multifaceted biological insights from a draft genome sequence of the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta

Michael R. Kanost, Estela L. Arrese, Xiaolong Cao, Yun Ru Chen, Sanjay Chellapilla, Marian R. Goldsmith, Ewald Grosse-Wilde, David G. Heckel, Nicolae Herndon, Haobo Jiang, Alexie Papanicolaou, Jiaxin Qu, Jose L. Soulages, Heiko Vogel, James Walters, Robert M. Waterhouse, Seung Joon Ahn, Francisca C. Almeida, Chunju An, Peshtewani Aqrawi & 94 others Anne Bretschneider, William B. Bryant, Sascha Bucks, Hsu Chao, Germain Chevignon, Jayne M. Christen, David F. Clarke, Neal T. Dittmer, Laura C F Ferguson, Spyridoula Garavelou, Karl H J Gordon, Ramesh T. Gunaratna, Yi Han, Frank Hauser, Yan He, Hanna Heidel-Fischer, Ariana Hirsh, Yingxia Hu, Hongbo Jiang, Divya Kalra, Christian Klinner, Christopher König, Christie Kovar, Ashley R. Kroll, Suyog S. Kuwar, Sandy L. Lee, Rüdiger Lehman, Kai Li, Zhaofei Li, Hanquan Liang, Shanna Lovelace, Zhiqiang Lu, Jennifer H. Mansfield, Kyle J. McCulloch, Tittu Mathew, Brian Morton, Donna M. Muzny, David Neunemann, Fiona Ongeri, Yannick Pauchet, Ling Ling Pu, Ioannis Pyrousis, Xiang Jun Rao, Amanda Redding, Charles Roesel, Alejandro Sanchez-Gracia, Sarah Schaack, Aditi Shukla, Guillaume Tetreau, Yang Wang, Guang Hua Xiong, Walther Traut, Tom K. Walsh, Kim C. Worley, Di Wu, Wenbi Wu, Yuan Qing Wu, Xiufeng Zhang, Zhen Zou, Hannah Zucker, Adriana D. Briscoe, Thorsten Burmester, Rollie J. Clem, René Feyereisen, Cornelis J P Grimmelikhuijzen, Stavros J. Hamodrakas, Bill S. Hansson, Elisabeth Huguet, Lars S. Jermiin, Que Lan, Herman K. Lehman, Marce Lorenzen, Hans Merzendorfer, Ioannis Michalopoulos, David Morton, Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan, John G. Oakeshott, Will Palmer, Yoonseong Park, A. Lorena Passarelli, Julio Rozas, Lawrence M. Schwartz, Wendy Smith, Agnes Southgate, Andreas Vilcinskas, Richard Vogt, Ping Wang, John Werren, Xiao Qiang Yu, Jing Jiang Zhou, Susan J. Brown, Steven E. Scherer, Stephen Richards, Gary W. Blissard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

53 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Manduca sexta, known as the tobacco hornworm or Carolina sphinx moth, is a lepidopteran insect that is used extensively as a model system for research in insect biochemistry, physiology, neurobiology, development, and immunity. One important benefit of this species as an experimental model is its extremely large size, reaching more than 10 g in the larval stage. M. sexta larvae feed on solanaceous plants and thus must tolerate a substantial challenge from plant allelochemicals, including nicotine. We report the sequence and annotation of the M. sexta genome, and a survey of gene expression in various tissues and developmental stages. The Msex_1.0 genome assembly resulted in a total genome size of 419.4 Mbp. Repetitive sequences accounted for 25.8% of the assembled genome. The official gene set is comprised of 15,451 protein-coding genes, of which 2498 were manually curated. Extensive RNA-seq data from many tissues and developmental stages were used to improve gene models and for insights into gene expression patterns. Genome wide synteny analysis indicated a high level of macrosynteny in the Lepidoptera. Annotation and analyses were carried out for gene families involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes, including apoptosis, vacuole sorting, growth and development, structures of exoskeleton, egg shells, and muscle, vision, chemosensation, ion channels, signal transduction, neuropeptide signaling, neurotransmitter synthesis and transport, nicotine tolerance, lipid metabolism, and immunity. This genome sequence, annotation, and analysis provide an important new resource from a well-studied model insect species and will facilitate further biochemical and mechanistic experimental studies of many biological systems in insects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)118-147
Number of pages30
JournalInsect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Volume76
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2016

Fingerprint

Manduca
Tobacco
Moths
Manduca sexta
moths
Genes
Genome
Insects
genome
nicotine
Nicotine
Immunity
insect biochemistry
genes
immunity
Lepidoptera
developmental stages
Egg Shell
insect models
Synteny

Keywords

  • Innate immunity
  • Insect
  • Insect biochemistry
  • Lepidoptera
  • Moth
  • Synteny
  • Tobacco hornworm

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Insect Science

Cite this

Kanost, M. R., Arrese, E. L., Cao, X., Chen, Y. R., Chellapilla, S., Goldsmith, M. R., ... Blissard, G. W. (2016). Multifaceted biological insights from a draft genome sequence of the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 76, 118-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2016.07.005

Multifaceted biological insights from a draft genome sequence of the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta. / Kanost, Michael R.; Arrese, Estela L.; Cao, Xiaolong; Chen, Yun Ru; Chellapilla, Sanjay; Goldsmith, Marian R.; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Heckel, David G.; Herndon, Nicolae; Jiang, Haobo; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Qu, Jiaxin; Soulages, Jose L.; Vogel, Heiko; Walters, James; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Ahn, Seung Joon; Almeida, Francisca C.; An, Chunju; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Bretschneider, Anne; Bryant, William B.; Bucks, Sascha; Chao, Hsu; Chevignon, Germain; Christen, Jayne M.; Clarke, David F.; Dittmer, Neal T.; Ferguson, Laura C F; Garavelou, Spyridoula; Gordon, Karl H J; Gunaratna, Ramesh T.; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; He, Yan; Heidel-Fischer, Hanna; Hirsh, Ariana; Hu, Yingxia; Jiang, Hongbo; Kalra, Divya; Klinner, Christian; König, Christopher; Kovar, Christie; Kroll, Ashley R.; Kuwar, Suyog S.; Lee, Sandy L.; Lehman, Rüdiger; Li, Kai; Li, Zhaofei; Liang, Hanquan; Lovelace, Shanna; Lu, Zhiqiang; Mansfield, Jennifer H.; McCulloch, Kyle J.; Mathew, Tittu; Morton, Brian; Muzny, Donna M.; Neunemann, David; Ongeri, Fiona; Pauchet, Yannick; Pu, Ling Ling; Pyrousis, Ioannis; Rao, Xiang Jun; Redding, Amanda; Roesel, Charles; Sanchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Schaack, Sarah; Shukla, Aditi; Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Yang; Xiong, Guang Hua; Traut, Walther; Walsh, Tom K.; Worley, Kim C.; Wu, Di; Wu, Wenbi; Wu, Yuan Qing; Zhang, Xiufeng; Zou, Zhen; Zucker, Hannah; Briscoe, Adriana D.; Burmester, Thorsten; Clem, Rollie J.; Feyereisen, René; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Hamodrakas, Stavros J.; Hansson, Bill S.; Huguet, Elisabeth; Jermiin, Lars S.; Lan, Que; Lehman, Herman K.; Lorenzen, Marce; Merzendorfer, Hans; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Morton, David; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Oakeshott, John G.; Palmer, Will; Park, Yoonseong; Passarelli, A. Lorena; Rozas, Julio; Schwartz, Lawrence M.; Smith, Wendy; Southgate, Agnes; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Vogt, Richard; Wang, Ping; Werren, John; Yu, Xiao Qiang; Zhou, Jing Jiang; Brown, Susan J.; Scherer, Steven E.; Richards, Stephen; Blissard, Gary W.

In: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Vol. 76, 01.09.2016, p. 118-147.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kanost, MR, Arrese, EL, Cao, X, Chen, YR, Chellapilla, S, Goldsmith, MR, Grosse-Wilde, E, Heckel, DG, Herndon, N, Jiang, H, Papanicolaou, A, Qu, J, Soulages, JL, Vogel, H, Walters, J, Waterhouse, RM, Ahn, SJ, Almeida, FC, An, C, Aqrawi, P, Bretschneider, A, Bryant, WB, Bucks, S, Chao, H, Chevignon, G, Christen, JM, Clarke, DF, Dittmer, NT, Ferguson, LCF, Garavelou, S, Gordon, KHJ, Gunaratna, RT, Han, Y, Hauser, F, He, Y, Heidel-Fischer, H, Hirsh, A, Hu, Y, Jiang, H, Kalra, D, Klinner, C, König, C, Kovar, C, Kroll, AR, Kuwar, SS, Lee, SL, Lehman, R, Li, K, Li, Z, Liang, H, Lovelace, S, Lu, Z, Mansfield, JH, McCulloch, KJ, Mathew, T, Morton, B, Muzny, DM, Neunemann, D, Ongeri, F, Pauchet, Y, Pu, LL, Pyrousis, I, Rao, XJ, Redding, A, Roesel, C, Sanchez-Gracia, A, Schaack, S, Shukla, A, Tetreau, G, Wang, Y, Xiong, GH, Traut, W, Walsh, TK, Worley, KC, Wu, D, Wu, W, Wu, YQ, Zhang, X, Zou, Z, Zucker, H, Briscoe, AD, Burmester, T, Clem, RJ, Feyereisen, R, Grimmelikhuijzen, CJP, Hamodrakas, SJ, Hansson, BS, Huguet, E, Jermiin, LS, Lan, Q, Lehman, HK, Lorenzen, M, Merzendorfer, H, Michalopoulos, I, Morton, D, Muthukrishnan, S, Oakeshott, JG, Palmer, W, Park, Y, Passarelli, AL, Rozas, J, Schwartz, LM, Smith, W, Southgate, A, Vilcinskas, A, Vogt, R, Wang, P, Werren, J, Yu, XQ, Zhou, JJ, Brown, SJ, Scherer, SE, Richards, S & Blissard, GW 2016, 'Multifaceted biological insights from a draft genome sequence of the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta', Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 76, pp. 118-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2016.07.005
Kanost, Michael R. ; Arrese, Estela L. ; Cao, Xiaolong ; Chen, Yun Ru ; Chellapilla, Sanjay ; Goldsmith, Marian R. ; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald ; Heckel, David G. ; Herndon, Nicolae ; Jiang, Haobo ; Papanicolaou, Alexie ; Qu, Jiaxin ; Soulages, Jose L. ; Vogel, Heiko ; Walters, James ; Waterhouse, Robert M. ; Ahn, Seung Joon ; Almeida, Francisca C. ; An, Chunju ; Aqrawi, Peshtewani ; Bretschneider, Anne ; Bryant, William B. ; Bucks, Sascha ; Chao, Hsu ; Chevignon, Germain ; Christen, Jayne M. ; Clarke, David F. ; Dittmer, Neal T. ; Ferguson, Laura C F ; Garavelou, Spyridoula ; Gordon, Karl H J ; Gunaratna, Ramesh T. ; Han, Yi ; Hauser, Frank ; He, Yan ; Heidel-Fischer, Hanna ; Hirsh, Ariana ; Hu, Yingxia ; Jiang, Hongbo ; Kalra, Divya ; Klinner, Christian ; König, Christopher ; Kovar, Christie ; Kroll, Ashley R. ; Kuwar, Suyog S. ; Lee, Sandy L. ; Lehman, Rüdiger ; Li, Kai ; Li, Zhaofei ; Liang, Hanquan ; Lovelace, Shanna ; Lu, Zhiqiang ; Mansfield, Jennifer H. ; McCulloch, Kyle J. ; Mathew, Tittu ; Morton, Brian ; Muzny, Donna M. ; Neunemann, David ; Ongeri, Fiona ; Pauchet, Yannick ; Pu, Ling Ling ; Pyrousis, Ioannis ; Rao, Xiang Jun ; Redding, Amanda ; Roesel, Charles ; Sanchez-Gracia, Alejandro ; Schaack, Sarah ; Shukla, Aditi ; Tetreau, Guillaume ; Wang, Yang ; Xiong, Guang Hua ; Traut, Walther ; Walsh, Tom K. ; Worley, Kim C. ; Wu, Di ; Wu, Wenbi ; Wu, Yuan Qing ; Zhang, Xiufeng ; Zou, Zhen ; Zucker, Hannah ; Briscoe, Adriana D. ; Burmester, Thorsten ; Clem, Rollie J. ; Feyereisen, René ; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P ; Hamodrakas, Stavros J. ; Hansson, Bill S. ; Huguet, Elisabeth ; Jermiin, Lars S. ; Lan, Que ; Lehman, Herman K. ; Lorenzen, Marce ; Merzendorfer, Hans ; Michalopoulos, Ioannis ; Morton, David ; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam ; Oakeshott, John G. ; Palmer, Will ; Park, Yoonseong ; Passarelli, A. Lorena ; Rozas, Julio ; Schwartz, Lawrence M. ; Smith, Wendy ; Southgate, Agnes ; Vilcinskas, Andreas ; Vogt, Richard ; Wang, Ping ; Werren, John ; Yu, Xiao Qiang ; Zhou, Jing Jiang ; Brown, Susan J. ; Scherer, Steven E. ; Richards, Stephen ; Blissard, Gary W. / Multifaceted biological insights from a draft genome sequence of the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta. In: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2016 ; Vol. 76. pp. 118-147.
@article{00d36d21090749ef9e20d852a27ab380,
title = "Multifaceted biological insights from a draft genome sequence of the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta",
abstract = "Manduca sexta, known as the tobacco hornworm or Carolina sphinx moth, is a lepidopteran insect that is used extensively as a model system for research in insect biochemistry, physiology, neurobiology, development, and immunity. One important benefit of this species as an experimental model is its extremely large size, reaching more than 10 g in the larval stage. M. sexta larvae feed on solanaceous plants and thus must tolerate a substantial challenge from plant allelochemicals, including nicotine. We report the sequence and annotation of the M. sexta genome, and a survey of gene expression in various tissues and developmental stages. The Msex_1.0 genome assembly resulted in a total genome size of 419.4 Mbp. Repetitive sequences accounted for 25.8{\%} of the assembled genome. The official gene set is comprised of 15,451 protein-coding genes, of which 2498 were manually curated. Extensive RNA-seq data from many tissues and developmental stages were used to improve gene models and for insights into gene expression patterns. Genome wide synteny analysis indicated a high level of macrosynteny in the Lepidoptera. Annotation and analyses were carried out for gene families involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes, including apoptosis, vacuole sorting, growth and development, structures of exoskeleton, egg shells, and muscle, vision, chemosensation, ion channels, signal transduction, neuropeptide signaling, neurotransmitter synthesis and transport, nicotine tolerance, lipid metabolism, and immunity. This genome sequence, annotation, and analysis provide an important new resource from a well-studied model insect species and will facilitate further biochemical and mechanistic experimental studies of many biological systems in insects.",
keywords = "Innate immunity, Insect, Insect biochemistry, Lepidoptera, Moth, Synteny, Tobacco hornworm",
author = "Kanost, {Michael R.} and Arrese, {Estela L.} and Xiaolong Cao and Chen, {Yun Ru} and Sanjay Chellapilla and Goldsmith, {Marian R.} and Ewald Grosse-Wilde and Heckel, {David G.} and Nicolae Herndon and Haobo Jiang and Alexie Papanicolaou and Jiaxin Qu and Soulages, {Jose L.} and Heiko Vogel and James Walters and Waterhouse, {Robert M.} and Ahn, {Seung Joon} and Almeida, {Francisca C.} and Chunju An and Peshtewani Aqrawi and Anne Bretschneider and Bryant, {William B.} and Sascha Bucks and Hsu Chao and Germain Chevignon and Christen, {Jayne M.} and Clarke, {David F.} and Dittmer, {Neal T.} and Ferguson, {Laura C F} and Spyridoula Garavelou and Gordon, {Karl H J} and Gunaratna, {Ramesh T.} and Yi Han and Frank Hauser and Yan He and Hanna Heidel-Fischer and Ariana Hirsh and Yingxia Hu and Hongbo Jiang and Divya Kalra and Christian Klinner and Christopher K{\"o}nig and Christie Kovar and Kroll, {Ashley R.} and Kuwar, {Suyog S.} and Lee, {Sandy L.} and R{\"u}diger Lehman and Kai Li and Zhaofei Li and Hanquan Liang and Shanna Lovelace and Zhiqiang Lu and Mansfield, {Jennifer H.} and McCulloch, {Kyle J.} and Tittu Mathew and Brian Morton and Muzny, {Donna M.} and David Neunemann and Fiona Ongeri and Yannick Pauchet and Pu, {Ling Ling} and Ioannis Pyrousis and Rao, {Xiang Jun} and Amanda Redding and Charles Roesel and Alejandro Sanchez-Gracia and Sarah Schaack and Aditi Shukla and Guillaume Tetreau and Yang Wang and Xiong, {Guang Hua} and Walther Traut and Walsh, {Tom K.} and Worley, {Kim C.} and Di Wu and Wenbi Wu and Wu, {Yuan Qing} and Xiufeng Zhang and Zhen Zou and Hannah Zucker and Briscoe, {Adriana D.} and Thorsten Burmester and Clem, {Rollie J.} and Ren{\'e} Feyereisen and Grimmelikhuijzen, {Cornelis J P} and Hamodrakas, {Stavros J.} and Hansson, {Bill S.} and Elisabeth Huguet and Jermiin, {Lars S.} and Que Lan and Lehman, {Herman K.} and Marce Lorenzen and Hans Merzendorfer and Ioannis Michalopoulos and David Morton and Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan and Oakeshott, {John G.} and Will Palmer and Yoonseong Park and Passarelli, {A. Lorena} and Julio Rozas and Schwartz, {Lawrence M.} and Wendy Smith and Agnes Southgate and Andreas Vilcinskas and Richard Vogt and Ping Wang and John Werren and Yu, {Xiao Qiang} and Zhou, {Jing Jiang} and Brown, {Susan J.} and Scherer, {Steven E.} and Stephen Richards and Blissard, {Gary W.}",
year = "2016",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.ibmb.2016.07.005",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "76",
pages = "118--147",
journal = "Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology",
issn = "0965-1748",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Multifaceted biological insights from a draft genome sequence of the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta

AU - Kanost, Michael R.

AU - Arrese, Estela L.

AU - Cao, Xiaolong

AU - Chen, Yun Ru

AU - Chellapilla, Sanjay

AU - Goldsmith, Marian R.

AU - Grosse-Wilde, Ewald

AU - Heckel, David G.

AU - Herndon, Nicolae

AU - Jiang, Haobo

AU - Papanicolaou, Alexie

AU - Qu, Jiaxin

AU - Soulages, Jose L.

AU - Vogel, Heiko

AU - Walters, James

AU - Waterhouse, Robert M.

AU - Ahn, Seung Joon

AU - Almeida, Francisca C.

AU - An, Chunju

AU - Aqrawi, Peshtewani

AU - Bretschneider, Anne

AU - Bryant, William B.

AU - Bucks, Sascha

AU - Chao, Hsu

AU - Chevignon, Germain

AU - Christen, Jayne M.

AU - Clarke, David F.

AU - Dittmer, Neal T.

AU - Ferguson, Laura C F

AU - Garavelou, Spyridoula

AU - Gordon, Karl H J

AU - Gunaratna, Ramesh T.

AU - Han, Yi

AU - Hauser, Frank

AU - He, Yan

AU - Heidel-Fischer, Hanna

AU - Hirsh, Ariana

AU - Hu, Yingxia

AU - Jiang, Hongbo

AU - Kalra, Divya

AU - Klinner, Christian

AU - König, Christopher

AU - Kovar, Christie

AU - Kroll, Ashley R.

AU - Kuwar, Suyog S.

AU - Lee, Sandy L.

AU - Lehman, Rüdiger

AU - Li, Kai

AU - Li, Zhaofei

AU - Liang, Hanquan

AU - Lovelace, Shanna

AU - Lu, Zhiqiang

AU - Mansfield, Jennifer H.

AU - McCulloch, Kyle J.

AU - Mathew, Tittu

AU - Morton, Brian

AU - Muzny, Donna M.

AU - Neunemann, David

AU - Ongeri, Fiona

AU - Pauchet, Yannick

AU - Pu, Ling Ling

AU - Pyrousis, Ioannis

AU - Rao, Xiang Jun

AU - Redding, Amanda

AU - Roesel, Charles

AU - Sanchez-Gracia, Alejandro

AU - Schaack, Sarah

AU - Shukla, Aditi

AU - Tetreau, Guillaume

AU - Wang, Yang

AU - Xiong, Guang Hua

AU - Traut, Walther

AU - Walsh, Tom K.

AU - Worley, Kim C.

AU - Wu, Di

AU - Wu, Wenbi

AU - Wu, Yuan Qing

AU - Zhang, Xiufeng

AU - Zou, Zhen

AU - Zucker, Hannah

AU - Briscoe, Adriana D.

AU - Burmester, Thorsten

AU - Clem, Rollie J.

AU - Feyereisen, René

AU - Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

AU - Hamodrakas, Stavros J.

AU - Hansson, Bill S.

AU - Huguet, Elisabeth

AU - Jermiin, Lars S.

AU - Lan, Que

AU - Lehman, Herman K.

AU - Lorenzen, Marce

AU - Merzendorfer, Hans

AU - Michalopoulos, Ioannis

AU - Morton, David

AU - Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam

AU - Oakeshott, John G.

AU - Palmer, Will

AU - Park, Yoonseong

AU - Passarelli, A. Lorena

AU - Rozas, Julio

AU - Schwartz, Lawrence M.

AU - Smith, Wendy

AU - Southgate, Agnes

AU - Vilcinskas, Andreas

AU - Vogt, Richard

AU - Wang, Ping

AU - Werren, John

AU - Yu, Xiao Qiang

AU - Zhou, Jing Jiang

AU - Brown, Susan J.

AU - Scherer, Steven E.

AU - Richards, Stephen

AU - Blissard, Gary W.

PY - 2016/9/1

Y1 - 2016/9/1

N2 - Manduca sexta, known as the tobacco hornworm or Carolina sphinx moth, is a lepidopteran insect that is used extensively as a model system for research in insect biochemistry, physiology, neurobiology, development, and immunity. One important benefit of this species as an experimental model is its extremely large size, reaching more than 10 g in the larval stage. M. sexta larvae feed on solanaceous plants and thus must tolerate a substantial challenge from plant allelochemicals, including nicotine. We report the sequence and annotation of the M. sexta genome, and a survey of gene expression in various tissues and developmental stages. The Msex_1.0 genome assembly resulted in a total genome size of 419.4 Mbp. Repetitive sequences accounted for 25.8% of the assembled genome. The official gene set is comprised of 15,451 protein-coding genes, of which 2498 were manually curated. Extensive RNA-seq data from many tissues and developmental stages were used to improve gene models and for insights into gene expression patterns. Genome wide synteny analysis indicated a high level of macrosynteny in the Lepidoptera. Annotation and analyses were carried out for gene families involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes, including apoptosis, vacuole sorting, growth and development, structures of exoskeleton, egg shells, and muscle, vision, chemosensation, ion channels, signal transduction, neuropeptide signaling, neurotransmitter synthesis and transport, nicotine tolerance, lipid metabolism, and immunity. This genome sequence, annotation, and analysis provide an important new resource from a well-studied model insect species and will facilitate further biochemical and mechanistic experimental studies of many biological systems in insects.

AB - Manduca sexta, known as the tobacco hornworm or Carolina sphinx moth, is a lepidopteran insect that is used extensively as a model system for research in insect biochemistry, physiology, neurobiology, development, and immunity. One important benefit of this species as an experimental model is its extremely large size, reaching more than 10 g in the larval stage. M. sexta larvae feed on solanaceous plants and thus must tolerate a substantial challenge from plant allelochemicals, including nicotine. We report the sequence and annotation of the M. sexta genome, and a survey of gene expression in various tissues and developmental stages. The Msex_1.0 genome assembly resulted in a total genome size of 419.4 Mbp. Repetitive sequences accounted for 25.8% of the assembled genome. The official gene set is comprised of 15,451 protein-coding genes, of which 2498 were manually curated. Extensive RNA-seq data from many tissues and developmental stages were used to improve gene models and for insights into gene expression patterns. Genome wide synteny analysis indicated a high level of macrosynteny in the Lepidoptera. Annotation and analyses were carried out for gene families involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes, including apoptosis, vacuole sorting, growth and development, structures of exoskeleton, egg shells, and muscle, vision, chemosensation, ion channels, signal transduction, neuropeptide signaling, neurotransmitter synthesis and transport, nicotine tolerance, lipid metabolism, and immunity. This genome sequence, annotation, and analysis provide an important new resource from a well-studied model insect species and will facilitate further biochemical and mechanistic experimental studies of many biological systems in insects.

KW - Innate immunity

KW - Insect

KW - Insect biochemistry

KW - Lepidoptera

KW - Moth

KW - Synteny

KW - Tobacco hornworm

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84984598882&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84984598882&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.ibmb.2016.07.005

DO - 10.1016/j.ibmb.2016.07.005

M3 - Article

VL - 76

SP - 118

EP - 147

JO - Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

JF - Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

SN - 0965-1748

ER -