Multicenter HIV and hepatitis B seroprevalence study

Jonathan Jui, Steve Modesitt, David Fleming, Penny Stevens, Barbara Wayson, Sharon Hulman, John A. Schriverz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

Prior single institutional investigations have found unrecognized HIV seroprevalence in emergency department (ED) patients to range from 0.38% to 4%. A prospective, anonymous study of HIV and hepatitis B (HB) seroprevalence was performed on excess serum of all ED patients over two 48-hour periods in May and August, 1988, from 7 hospitals in the Portland metropolitan area. Demographics were known for 338/444 (76%) of patients. Forty-six percent were male, 85 % white, with a median age group of 34-39 years. Ambulance transport, trauma, external blood, presentations requiring ED procedure(s), and acuity resulting in ICU admission were present on 21%, 7%, 10%, 34%, and 14% of patients, respectively. Two of 444 (.45%) patients were HIV +, one previously undiagnosed. Fifty-five of the 444 (12%) and 3 of 444 (0.6%) samples were positive for HBcAB and HBsAG respectively. Risk factor assessment was possible on 180/444 (40%) patients. HBcAB seroprevalence correlated with race (P < 0.01), IV drug use (P < 0.0001), and hospital location, (P < 0.006) but were sensitive in detecting only 14%, 18%, and 38%, respectively, of HBcAB+ patients. HBcAB was not associated with the following factors: sex, area of residence, presence of blood externally, trauma, acuity of illness, ED procedures, or mode of transport. This data strongly support the use of universal body fluid precautions. Hepatitis B poses a significant and distinct risk to all emergency care providers. HB vaccination should be strongly advocated for all ED health care workers (HCWs). Emergency medicine multicenter studies are both desirable and feasible.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)243-251
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Emergency Medicine
Volume8
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1990

Keywords

  • Etiology
  • HIV seropositivity
  • Transmission Acquired
  • acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  • antibodies, viral analysis
  • diagnosis
  • emergency service, hospital
  • epidemiology
  • occupational diseases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine

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    Jui, J., Modesitt, S., Fleming, D., Stevens, P., Wayson, B., Hulman, S., & Schriverz, J. A. (1990). Multicenter HIV and hepatitis B seroprevalence study. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 8(3), 243-251. https://doi.org/10.1016/0736-4679(90)90001-C