Abstract: Neurological complications of paediatric cancers are a substantial problem. Complications can be primary from central nervous system (CNS) spread or secondary from indirect or remote effects of cancer, as well as cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In this review, we present the clinical and imaging findings of rare but important neurological complications in paediatric patients with cancer. Neurological complications are classified into three phases: pre-treatment, treatment and post-remission. Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, hyperviscosity syndrome, haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and infection are found in the pre-treatment phase, while Trousseau’s syndrome, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and methotrexate neurotoxicity are found in the treatment phase; though some complications overlap between the pre-treatment and treatment phases. Hippocampal sclerosis, radiation induced tumour, radiation induced focal haemosiderin deposition and radiation-induced white matter injury are found in the post-remission phase. With increasingly long survival after treatment, CNS complications have become more common. It is critical for radiologists to recognise neurological complications related to paediatric cancer or treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a significant role in the recognition and proper management of the neurological complications of paediatric cancer. Teaching Points: • Neurological complications of paediatric cancer include various entities. • Neurological complications are classified into three phases: pre-treatment, treatment and post-remission. • Radiologists should be familiar with clinical and imaging findings of neurological complications. • MRI features may be characteristic and lead to early diagnosis and proper treatments.
- MRI, imaging
- Neurological complication
- Paediatric cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging