Background: Retroperitoneal hematoma (RPH) increases morbidity and mortality in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). High femoral arteriotomy is an independent predictor of RPH, but the optimal angiographic criterion for defining a high puncture is unknown. Methods: We retrospectively identified 557 consecutive PCI cases with femoral angiograms. Arteriotomy sites were categorized as high based on three angiographic criteria: at or above the proximal third of the femoral head (criterion A), at or above the most inferior border of the inferior epigastric artery (criterion B), and at or above the origin of the inferior epigastric artery (criterion C). Cases of RPH were then identified. Results: Of the 557 PCI patients, 26 had a high femoral arteriotomy by criterion A, 17 by criterion B, and 6 by criterion C. Among these patients with a high arteriotomy, RPH occurred in four with criterion A, in three with criterion B, and in one with criterion C. Of the three criteria, criterion A most strongly correlated with RPH (odds ratio [OR] 96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10.3-898.4; p < 0.0001) compared with criterion B (OR 58, 95% CI 8.9 to 372.6; p < 0.0001) or C (OR 27, 95% CI 2.6 to 290.1; p = 0.053). All criteria had high specificity (A, 96%; B, 97%; C, 99%), but the sensitivity was higher with criterion A (80%) than criterion B (60%) or C (20%), and statistically, the use of criterion A led to the most accurate risk-stratification for RPH (A, κ = 0.79; B, κ = 0.59; C, κ = 0.19). Conclusions: Among the three common definitions of high arteriotomy, femoral artery puncture at or above the proximal third of the femoral head is the landmark that most accurately risk stratifies PCI patients for development of RPH.
- percutaneous coronary intervention
- retroperitoneal hemorrhage
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine