Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Pathologic evaluation of urothelial cancers relies predominantly on histomorphologic features but can be aided in a small subset of cases by immunohistochemical analyses. Distinction of papillary versus flat lesions, low-grade versus high-grade cytology, and histologic variants and the presence or absence of invasive tumor is important for proper clinical management. Advances in the molecular alterations associated with the various subtypes of urothelial carcinoma have been made but such studies are ongoing.
- Bladdder cancer
- Molecular alterations
- Urothelial cancers
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine