Thirty-one pediatric patients with acute renal allograft rejection were treated with the monoclonal antibody OKT3. In 24 cases, increased doses of steroids followed by a polycolonal antithymocyte globulin were ineffective in reversing the rejection episode. Twenty-eight patients completed the prescribed minimum 10-day treatment course, with effective rejection reversal in 22. Three patients failed to complete the course of therapy: one because of leukopenia that developed after the first dose, one because of a clotted grafi, and another because of symptomatic cytomegalovirus infection. The overall success rate of OKT3 for rejection reversal was 74%; however, 55% of recipients had rebound rejection, and 85% of patients had detectable anti-OKT3 antibodies after completion of the course of therapy. Ten patients were treated with a second course of OKT3, and in eight of these patients, rejection was at least temporarily reversed. The starting dose of OKT3 for second-course therapy was the same as that used during first-course therapy, but in five cases the dose was increased during the course because of inadequate therapeutic response. Seven of these patients lost their grafts a mean of 6.5 months after completion of second-course therapy. We looked for anti-OKT3 antibody in nine recipients after completion of a second treatment course and found it in all nine. Our observations regarding a second treatment course with this monoclonal antibody preparation suggest that although rejection reversal may be observed, ultimate graft survival is poor and anti-OKT3 antibody formation is enhanced.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health