Stroke is a very common neurological disease, and it occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted and the subsequent shortage of oxygen and nutrients causes damage to the brain tissue. Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. The occurrence of stroke increases with age, but anyone at any age can suffer a stroke. Stroke can be broadly classified in two major clinical types: ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke. Research also revealed that stroke, vascular dementia (VaD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) increase with a number of modifiable factors, and most strokes can be prevented and/or controlled through pharmacological or surgical interventions and lifestyle changes. The pathophysiology of stroke, VaD, and AD is complex, and recent molecular and postmortem brain studies have revealed that multiple cellular changes have been implicated, including inflammatory responses, microRNA alterations, and marked changes in brain proteins. These molecular and cellular changes provide new information for developing therapeutic strategies for stroke and related vascular disorders treatment. IS is the major risk factor for VaD and AD. This chapter summarizes the (1) links among stroke–VaD–AD; (2) updates the latest developments of research in identifying protein biomarkers in peripheral and central nervous system tissues; and (3) critically evaluates miRNA profile and function in human blood samples, animal, and postmortem brains.