Modified Lapidus vs Scarf Osteotomy Outcomes for Treatment of Hallux Valgus Deformity

Megan E. Reilly, Matthew S. Conti, Jonathan Day, Aoife MacMahon, Bopha Chrea, Kristin C. Caolo, Nicholas Williams, Mark C. Drakos, Scott J. Ellis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background: The Lapidus procedure and scarf osteotomy are indicated for the operative treatment of hallux valgus; however, no prior studies have compared outcomes between the procedures. The aim of this study was to compare clinical and radiographic outcomes between patients with symptomatic hallux valgus treated with the modified Lapidus procedure versus scarf osteotomy. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients treated by 1 of 7 fellowship-trained foot and ankle surgeons. Inclusion criteria were age older than 18 years, primary modified Lapidus procedure or scarf osteotomy for hallux valgus, minimum 1-year postoperative Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) scores, and minimum 3-month postoperative radiographs. Revision cases were excluded. Clinical outcomes were assessed using 6 PROMIS domains. Pre- and postoperative radiographic parameters were measured on anteroposterior (AP) and lateral weightbearing radiographs. Statistical analysis utilized targeted minimum-loss estimation (TMLE) to control for confounders. Results: A total of 136 patients (73 Lapidus, 63 scarf) with an average of 17.8 months of follow-up were included in this study. There was significant improvement in PROMIS physical function scores in the modified Lapidus (mean change, 5.25; P <.01) and scarf osteotomy (mean change, 5.50; P <.01) cohorts, with no significant differences between the 2 groups (P =.85). After controlling for bunion severity, the probability of having a normal postoperative intermetatarsal angle (IMA; <9 degrees) was 25% lower (P =.04) with the scarf osteotomy compared with the Lapidus procedure. Conclusion: Although the modified Lapidus procedure led to a higher probability of achieving a normal IMA, both procedures yielded similar improvements in 1-year patient-reported outcome measures. Level of Evidence: Level III, retrospective cohort.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1454-1462
Number of pages9
JournalFoot and Ankle International
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2021


  • Lapidus
  • bunionectomy
  • hallux valgus
  • scarf osteotomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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