Mitochondrial medicine for aging and neurodegenerative diseases

P. Hemachandra Reddy

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

    125 Scopus citations

    Abstract

    Mitochondria are key cytoplasmic organelles, responsible for generating cellular energy, regulating intracellular calcium levels, altering the reduction-oxidation potential of cells, and regulating cell death. Increasing evidence suggests that mitochondria play a central role in aging and in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Freidriech ataxia. Further, several lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is an early event in most late-onset neurodegenerative diseases. Biochemical and animal model studies of inherited neurodegenerative diseases have revealed that mutant proteins of these diseases are associated with mitochondria. Mutant proteins are reported to block the transport of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins to mitochondria, interact with mitochondrial proteins and disrupt the electron transport chain, induce free radicals, cause mitochondrial dysfunction, and, ultimately, damage neurons. This article discusses critical issues of mitochondria causing dysfunction in aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and discusses the potential of developing mitochondrial medicine, particularly mitochondrially targeted antioxidants, to treat aging and neurodegenerative diseases.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)291-315
    Number of pages25
    JournalNeuroMolecular Medicine
    Volume10
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Dec 1 2008

    Keywords

    • Adenosine triphosphate
    • Alzheimer's disease
    • Amyloid beta
    • Amyloid precursor protein
    • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    • Caloric restricted
    • Electron transport chain
    • FRDA
    • Freidriech ataxia
    • Huntington's disease
    • Hydrogen peroxide
    • Mitochondrial DNA

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Molecular Medicine
    • Neurology
    • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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