Minimizing Exposure to Passive Smoke in the Enclosed Environment of U.S. Submarines

Robert P. Jackman, Perry N. Willette, Debra White, Susan M. Krizek

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objective: This study was designed to determine which designated smoking area on a submarine, forward or aft, minimizes nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Methods: A survey was administered and urine tested by an enzyme-linked immunoassay for urinary cotinine before and during a 10 d underway. There were four groups tested; submariners on boats with forward or aft designated smoking areas, with each of these groups further divided into submariners whose watch is primarily forward or aft. Results: There were no significant differences in urine cotinine levels between submariners whose watches are primarily in the forward section as compared with those who work primarily aft. This was true for predeployment as compared with deployment levels and whether the designated smoking area was located forward or aft. Conclusion: Using cotinine as a marker, passive smoke exposure appears to be minimum. The location of the designated smoking area aboard U. S. Navy submarines does not appear to have any effect on urinary cotinine levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)60-64
Number of pages5
JournalAviation Space and Environmental Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Environmental tobacco smoke
  • Submarine medicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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