We evaluated standard-of-care (SOC) treatment with or without midostaurin to prevent relapse following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloHSCT) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harboring internal tandem duplication (ITD) in FLT3. Adults (aged 18–70 years) who received alloHSCT in first complete remission, had achieved hematologic recovery, and were transfusion independent were randomized to receive SOC with or without midostaurin (50 mg twice daily) continuously in twelve 4-week cycles. The primary endpoint was relapse-free survival (RFS) 18 months post-alloHSCT. Sixty patients were randomized (30/arm); 30 completed all 12 cycles (midostaurin + SOC, n = 16; SOC, n = 14). The estimated 18-month RFS (95% CI) was 89% (69–96%) in the midostaurin arm and 76% (54–88%) in the SOC arm (hazard ratio, 0.46 [95% CI, 0.12–1.86]; P = 0.27); estimated relapse rates were 11% and 24%, respectively. Inhibition of FLT3 phosphorylation to <70% of baseline (achieved by 50% of midostaurin-treated patients) was associated with improved RFS. The most common serious adverse events were diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Rates of graft-vs-host disease were similar between both arms (midostaurin + SOC, 70%; SOC, 73%). The addition of midostaurin maintenance therapy following alloHSCT may provide clinical benefit in some patients with FLT3-ITD AML. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01883362).
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