Membrane-associated and secreted forms of the rhesus macaque rhadinovirus-encoded CD200 homologue and cellular CD200 demonstrate differential effects on rhesus macaque CD200 receptor signaling and regulation of myeloid cell activation

Ryan Estep, Aparna N. Govindan, Kristin Fitzpatrick, Tiffany C. Blair, S. A.Rahim Rezaee, David J. Blackbourn, Scott W. Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The CD200-CD200 receptor (CD200R) pathway is involved in inhibition of immune responses, and the importance of this pathway to infectious disease is highlighted by the fact that viral CD200 (vCD200) molecules have been found to be encoded by several DNA viruses, including the human gammaherpesvirus Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and the closely related rhesus macaque rhadinovirus (RRV). KSHV vCD200 is the most extensively studied vCD200 molecule; however, the only herpesvirus vCD200 molecule to be examined in vivo is that encoded by RRV. Our prior studies have demonstrated that RRV vCD200 is a functional CD200 homologue that is capable of affecting immune responses in vivo, and furthermore, that RRV can express a secreted form of vCD200 (vCD200-Sec) during infection. Despite this information, RRV vCD200 has not been examined specifically for effects on RM CD200R signaling, and the functionality of vCD200-Sec has not been examined in any context. Thus, we developed an in vitro model system in which B cells expressing vCD200 were utilized to assess the effects of this molecule on the regulation of myeloid cells expressing RM CD200R, mimicking interactions that are predicted to occur in vivo. Our findings suggest that RRV vCD200 can bind and induce functional signals through RM CD200R, while vCD200-Sec represents a nonfunctional protein incapable of affecting CD200R signaling. We also provide the first demonstration of the function of RM CD200, which appears to possess more robust signaling capabilities than RRV vCD200, and show that KSHV vCD200 does not efficiently induce signaling via RM CD200R. IMPORTANCE Viral CD200 homologues are encoded by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and the closely related rhesus macaque rhadinovirus (RRV). Though RRV viral CD200 (vCD200) has been examined, questions still exist in regard to the ability of this molecule to induce signaling via rhesus macaque CD200 receptor (CD200R) as well as the potential function of a secreted form of vCD200. Furthermore, all previous in vitro studies of RRV vCD200 have utilized an Fc fusion protein to examine functionality, which does not replicate the structural properties of the membrane-associated form of vCD200 that is naturally produced during RRV infection. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that membrane-expressed RRV vCD200 is capable of inducing signal transduction via RM CD200R, while the secreted form of vCD200 appears to be nonfunctional. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that RM CD200 induces signaling via RM CD200R and is more robust than RRV vCD200, while KSHV vCD200 does not appear to induce efficient signaling via RM CD200R.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere01654-20
JournalJournal of virology
Volume95
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2021

Keywords

  • Immune regulation
  • Rhesus rhadinovirus
  • Viral CD200

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Insect Science
  • Virology

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