Medical School Factors Associated with Changes in Implicit and Explicit Bias Against Gay and Lesbian People among 3492 Graduating Medical Students

Sean M. Phelan, Sara E. Burke, Rachel R. Hardeman, Richard O. White, Julia Przedworski, John F. Dovidio, Sylvia P. Perry, Michael Plankey, Brooke A. Cunningham, Deborah Finstad, Mark W. Yeazel, Michelle van Ryn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Implicit and explicit bias among providers can influence the quality of healthcare. Efforts to address sexual orientation bias in new physicians are hampered by a lack of knowledge of school factors that influence bias among students. Objective: To determine whether medical school curriculum, role modeling, diversity climate, and contact with sexual minorities predict bias among graduating students against gay and lesbian people. Design: Prospective cohort study. Participants: A sample of 4732 first-year medical students was recruited from a stratified random sample of 49 US medical schools in the fall of 2010 (81% response; 55% of eligible), of which 94.5% (4473) identified as heterosexual. Seventy-eight percent of baseline respondents (3492) completed a follow-up survey in their final semester (spring 2014). Main Measures: Medical school predictors included formal curriculum, role modeling, diversity climate, and contact with sexual minorities. Outcomes were year 4 implicit and explicit bias against gay men and lesbian women, adjusted for bias at year 1. Key Results: In multivariate models, lower explicit bias against gay men and lesbian women was associated with more favorable contact with LGBT faculty, residents, students, and patients, and perceived skill and preparedness for providing care to LGBT patients. Greater explicit bias against lesbian women was associated with discrimination reported by sexual minority students (b = 1.43 [0.16, 2.71]; p = 0.03). Lower implicit sexual orientation bias was associated with more frequent contact with LGBT faculty, residents, students, and patients (b = −0.04 [−0.07, −0.01); p = 0.008). Greater implicit bias was associated with more faculty role modeling of discriminatory behavior (b = 0.34 [0.11, 0.57); p = 0.004). Conclusions: Medical schools may reduce bias against sexual minority patients by reducing negative role modeling, improving the diversity climate, and improving student preparedness to care for this population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1193-1201
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of General Internal Medicine
Volume32
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2017
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Medical Schools
Medical Students
Students
Climate
Sexual Behavior
Curriculum
Sexual Minorities
Quality of Health Care
Heterosexuality
Cohort Studies
Prospective Studies
Physicians

Keywords

  • longitudinal studies
  • medical education
  • prejudice
  • sexual minorities
  • sexual orientation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

Cite this

Medical School Factors Associated with Changes in Implicit and Explicit Bias Against Gay and Lesbian People among 3492 Graduating Medical Students. / Phelan, Sean M.; Burke, Sara E.; Hardeman, Rachel R.; White, Richard O.; Przedworski, Julia; Dovidio, John F.; Perry, Sylvia P.; Plankey, Michael; A. Cunningham, Brooke; Finstad, Deborah; W. Yeazel, Mark; van Ryn, Michelle.

In: Journal of General Internal Medicine, Vol. 32, No. 11, 01.11.2017, p. 1193-1201.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Phelan, SM, Burke, SE, Hardeman, RR, White, RO, Przedworski, J, Dovidio, JF, Perry, SP, Plankey, M, A. Cunningham, B, Finstad, D, W. Yeazel, M & van Ryn, M 2017, 'Medical School Factors Associated with Changes in Implicit and Explicit Bias Against Gay and Lesbian People among 3492 Graduating Medical Students', Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 1193-1201. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-017-4127-6
Phelan, Sean M. ; Burke, Sara E. ; Hardeman, Rachel R. ; White, Richard O. ; Przedworski, Julia ; Dovidio, John F. ; Perry, Sylvia P. ; Plankey, Michael ; A. Cunningham, Brooke ; Finstad, Deborah ; W. Yeazel, Mark ; van Ryn, Michelle. / Medical School Factors Associated with Changes in Implicit and Explicit Bias Against Gay and Lesbian People among 3492 Graduating Medical Students. In: Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2017 ; Vol. 32, No. 11. pp. 1193-1201.
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abstract = "Background: Implicit and explicit bias among providers can influence the quality of healthcare. Efforts to address sexual orientation bias in new physicians are hampered by a lack of knowledge of school factors that influence bias among students. Objective: To determine whether medical school curriculum, role modeling, diversity climate, and contact with sexual minorities predict bias among graduating students against gay and lesbian people. Design: Prospective cohort study. Participants: A sample of 4732 first-year medical students was recruited from a stratified random sample of 49 US medical schools in the fall of 2010 (81{\%} response; 55{\%} of eligible), of which 94.5{\%} (4473) identified as heterosexual. Seventy-eight percent of baseline respondents (3492) completed a follow-up survey in their final semester (spring 2014). Main Measures: Medical school predictors included formal curriculum, role modeling, diversity climate, and contact with sexual minorities. Outcomes were year 4 implicit and explicit bias against gay men and lesbian women, adjusted for bias at year 1. Key Results: In multivariate models, lower explicit bias against gay men and lesbian women was associated with more favorable contact with LGBT faculty, residents, students, and patients, and perceived skill and preparedness for providing care to LGBT patients. Greater explicit bias against lesbian women was associated with discrimination reported by sexual minority students (b = 1.43 [0.16, 2.71]; p = 0.03). Lower implicit sexual orientation bias was associated with more frequent contact with LGBT faculty, residents, students, and patients (b = −0.04 [−0.07, −0.01); p = 0.008). Greater implicit bias was associated with more faculty role modeling of discriminatory behavior (b = 0.34 [0.11, 0.57); p = 0.004). Conclusions: Medical schools may reduce bias against sexual minority patients by reducing negative role modeling, improving the diversity climate, and improving student preparedness to care for this population.",
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AU - White, Richard O.

AU - Przedworski, Julia

AU - Dovidio, John F.

AU - Perry, Sylvia P.

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