Mechanisms of polymorphonuclear neutrophil-mediated induction of HIV-1 replication in macrophages during pulmonary tuberculosis

Yoshihiko Hoshino, Satomi Hoshino, Jeffrey A. Gold, Bindu Raju, Savita Prabhakar, Richard Pine, William N. Rom, Koh Nakata, Michael Weiden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Background. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can present with polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)-predominant alveolitis. TB accelerates acquired immunodeficiency syndrome by increasing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication and mutation in alveolar macrophages. A 16-kDa CCAAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) isoform is a strong transcriptional repressor of the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) in resting alveolar macrophages, leading to latent viral infection; its expression is lost during TB, derepressing the HIV LTR. Methods. Lung segments were sampled from HIV/Mycobacterium tuberculosis - coinfected patients by means of bronchoalveolar lavage. In vitro coculture experiments defined the mechanism of induction of HIV-1 infection in macrophages by PMNs. Results. Lung segments from patients with PMN-predominant TB had a markedly elevated viral load. Direct contact between activated PMNs and macrophages stimulated HIV-1 replication and LTR transcription and down-regulated inhibitory C/EBPβ. Isolated PMN membranes substituted for PMN contact, derepressing the HIV-1 LTR. The lipid raft fraction of PMN membranes expressed CD40 ligand (CD40L), CD28, and leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1 [i.e., CD11a and CD18]), and PMN activation increased lipid raft expression of CD40L and CD28. Blocking antibodies to CD40L, CD28, and LFA-1 inhibited PMN membrane-mediated HIV-1 LTR derepression. Alternately, cross-linking of macrophage receptors for CD40L, CD28, and LFA-1 (CD40, CD80/86, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1) abolished inhibitory C/EBPβ expression. Conclusion. PMN-macrophage contact derepresses the HIV-1 LTR and enhances HIV-1 replication in alveolar macrophages during pulmonary TB. Derepression is mediated through costimulatory molecule signaling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1303-1310
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number9
StatePublished - May 1 2007
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases


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