Mechanical and electrical responses of the squid giant axon to simple elongation

James Galbraith, L. E. Thibault, D. R. Matteson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

165 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

There is a limited amount of information available on the mechanical and functional response of the nervous system to loading. While deformation of cerebral, spinal, or peripheral nerve tissue can have particularly severe consequences, most research in this area has concentrated on either demonstrating in-vivo functional changes and disclosing the effected anatomical path ways, or describing material deformations of the composite structure. Although such studies have successfully produced repeatable traumas, they have not addressed the mechanisms of these mechanically induced injuries. Therefore, a single cell model is required in order to gain further understanding of this complex phenomena. An isolated squid giant axon was subjected to controlled uniaxial loading and its mechanical and physiological responses were monitored with an instrument specifically designed for these experiments. These results determined that the mechanical properties of the isolated axon are similar to those of other soft tissues, and include features such as a nonlinear load-deflection curve and a hysteresis loop upon unloading. The mechanical response was modeled with the quasi-linear viscoelastic theory (Fung, 1972). The physiological response of the axon to quasi-static loading was a small reversible hyperpolarization; however, as the rate of loading was increased, the axon depolarized and the magnitude and the time needed to recover to the original resting potential increased in a nonlinear fashion. At elongations greater than twenty percent an irreversible injury occurs and the membrane potential does not completely recover to baseline.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13-22
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Biomechanical Engineering
Volume115
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1993
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Decapodiformes
Axons
Elongation
Membrane Potentials
Wounds and Injuries
Tissue
Nerve Tissue
Spinal Nerves
Neurology
Hysteresis loops
Composite structures
Unloading
Peripheral Nerves
Nervous System
Membranes
Mechanical properties
Research
Experiments

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Mechanical and electrical responses of the squid giant axon to simple elongation. / Galbraith, James; Thibault, L. E.; Matteson, D. R.

In: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, Vol. 115, No. 1, 01.01.1993, p. 13-22.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{2368861792904f57a25c7b79a895b481,
title = "Mechanical and electrical responses of the squid giant axon to simple elongation",
abstract = "There is a limited amount of information available on the mechanical and functional response of the nervous system to loading. While deformation of cerebral, spinal, or peripheral nerve tissue can have particularly severe consequences, most research in this area has concentrated on either demonstrating in-vivo functional changes and disclosing the effected anatomical path ways, or describing material deformations of the composite structure. Although such studies have successfully produced repeatable traumas, they have not addressed the mechanisms of these mechanically induced injuries. Therefore, a single cell model is required in order to gain further understanding of this complex phenomena. An isolated squid giant axon was subjected to controlled uniaxial loading and its mechanical and physiological responses were monitored with an instrument specifically designed for these experiments. These results determined that the mechanical properties of the isolated axon are similar to those of other soft tissues, and include features such as a nonlinear load-deflection curve and a hysteresis loop upon unloading. The mechanical response was modeled with the quasi-linear viscoelastic theory (Fung, 1972). The physiological response of the axon to quasi-static loading was a small reversible hyperpolarization; however, as the rate of loading was increased, the axon depolarized and the magnitude and the time needed to recover to the original resting potential increased in a nonlinear fashion. At elongations greater than twenty percent an irreversible injury occurs and the membrane potential does not completely recover to baseline.",
author = "James Galbraith and Thibault, {L. E.} and Matteson, {D. R.}",
year = "1993",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1115/1.2895464",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "115",
pages = "13--22",
journal = "Journal of Biomechanical Engineering",
issn = "0148-0731",
publisher = "American Society of Mechanical Engineers(ASME)",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mechanical and electrical responses of the squid giant axon to simple elongation

AU - Galbraith, James

AU - Thibault, L. E.

AU - Matteson, D. R.

PY - 1993/1/1

Y1 - 1993/1/1

N2 - There is a limited amount of information available on the mechanical and functional response of the nervous system to loading. While deformation of cerebral, spinal, or peripheral nerve tissue can have particularly severe consequences, most research in this area has concentrated on either demonstrating in-vivo functional changes and disclosing the effected anatomical path ways, or describing material deformations of the composite structure. Although such studies have successfully produced repeatable traumas, they have not addressed the mechanisms of these mechanically induced injuries. Therefore, a single cell model is required in order to gain further understanding of this complex phenomena. An isolated squid giant axon was subjected to controlled uniaxial loading and its mechanical and physiological responses were monitored with an instrument specifically designed for these experiments. These results determined that the mechanical properties of the isolated axon are similar to those of other soft tissues, and include features such as a nonlinear load-deflection curve and a hysteresis loop upon unloading. The mechanical response was modeled with the quasi-linear viscoelastic theory (Fung, 1972). The physiological response of the axon to quasi-static loading was a small reversible hyperpolarization; however, as the rate of loading was increased, the axon depolarized and the magnitude and the time needed to recover to the original resting potential increased in a nonlinear fashion. At elongations greater than twenty percent an irreversible injury occurs and the membrane potential does not completely recover to baseline.

AB - There is a limited amount of information available on the mechanical and functional response of the nervous system to loading. While deformation of cerebral, spinal, or peripheral nerve tissue can have particularly severe consequences, most research in this area has concentrated on either demonstrating in-vivo functional changes and disclosing the effected anatomical path ways, or describing material deformations of the composite structure. Although such studies have successfully produced repeatable traumas, they have not addressed the mechanisms of these mechanically induced injuries. Therefore, a single cell model is required in order to gain further understanding of this complex phenomena. An isolated squid giant axon was subjected to controlled uniaxial loading and its mechanical and physiological responses were monitored with an instrument specifically designed for these experiments. These results determined that the mechanical properties of the isolated axon are similar to those of other soft tissues, and include features such as a nonlinear load-deflection curve and a hysteresis loop upon unloading. The mechanical response was modeled with the quasi-linear viscoelastic theory (Fung, 1972). The physiological response of the axon to quasi-static loading was a small reversible hyperpolarization; however, as the rate of loading was increased, the axon depolarized and the magnitude and the time needed to recover to the original resting potential increased in a nonlinear fashion. At elongations greater than twenty percent an irreversible injury occurs and the membrane potential does not completely recover to baseline.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027551713&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027551713&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1115/1.2895464

DO - 10.1115/1.2895464

M3 - Article

C2 - 8445893

AN - SCOPUS:0027551713

VL - 115

SP - 13

EP - 22

JO - Journal of Biomechanical Engineering

JF - Journal of Biomechanical Engineering

SN - 0148-0731

IS - 1

ER -