Automated insulin delivery systems for people with type 1 diabetes rely on an accurate subcutaneous glucose sensor and an infusion cannula that delivers insulin in response to measured glucose. Integrating the sensor with the infusion cannula would provide substantial benefit by reducing the number of devices inserted into subcutaneous tissue. We describe the sensor chemistry and a calibration algorithm to minimize impact of insulin delivery artifacts in a new glucose sensing cannula. Seven people with type 1 diabetes undergoing automated insulin delivery used two sensing cannulae whereby one delivered a rapidly-acting insulin analog and the other delivered a control phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution with no insulin. While there was a small artifact in both conditions that increased for larger volumes, there was no difference between the artifacts in the sensing cannula delivering insulin compared with the sensing cannula delivering PBS as determined by integrating the area-under-the-curve of the sensor values following delivery of larger amounts of fluid (P = 0.7). The time for the sensor to recover from the artifact was found to be longer for larger fluid amounts compared with smaller fluid amounts (10.3 ± 8.5 min vs. 41.2 ± 78.3 s, P < 0.05). Using a smart-sampling Kalman filtering smoothing algorithm improved sensor accuracy. When using an all-point calibration on all sensors, the smart-sampling Kalman filter reduced the mean absolute relative difference from 10.9% to 9.5% and resulted in 96.7% of the data points falling within the A and B regions of the Clarke error grid. Despite a small artifact, which is likely due to dilution by fluid delivery, it is possible to continuously measure glucose in a cannula that simultaneously delivers insulin.
- Amperometric sensor
- Continuous glucose monitoring
- Insulin infusion
- Redox-mediated electrochemistry
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering