In 126 mother-toddler dyads, the relationships between maternal limit-setting patterns at 12, 24, and 36 months were examined in relation to toddler self-concept and social competence at 3 years. Maternal limit-setting patterns differentiated toddler self-concept and social competence scores, demonstrating effects of socialization as well as cognitive maturation. Less optimal toddler outcomes at 36 months were associated with an inconsistent maternal limit-setting style and an indirect style. Children of mothers with a teaching-based pattern yielded the most positive outcomes. Although a power-based maternal limit-setting style was related to diminished self-regulatory behavior in a concurrent limit-setting context, outcomes for children of power-based mothers in terms of self-concept and social competence were not as negative as expected.
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