Maternal adaptations to pregnancy and the role of the placenta

Leslie Myatt, Theresa Powell

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Delivery of an optimally grown, viable infant defines a successful pregnancy. Optimal growth is achieved by the interaction of maternal, placental, and fetal systems to deliver maternal nutrients to the placenta, transfer them to the fetus, and maximize their utilization for fetal growth. Pregnancy is characterized by profound changes in the maternal immune, metabolic, cardiovascular, and renal systems to ensure a successful pregnancy and adequate fetal growth. The fetal-placental unit secretes many hormonal signals, the roles of which include redirecting maternal physiology and metabolism to direct substrate toward the fetus and support normal fetal growth. The physiological adaptations of pregnancy begin shortly after conception, indeed before the establishment of a fetal-placental unit, and thus in their early phases must be directed by maternal signals, including those from the corpus luteum. Subsequently feto-placental signals play a major role in regulation of maternal metabolism. This chapter describes the maternal adaptation to pregnancy and the role of the placenta in nutrient transfer to the fetus. The changes in the cardiovascular system seen in pregnancy are by far the largest physiological challenge this system will face throughout the life cycle and include anatomical changes, increased blood volume and cardiac output, and a decrease in systemic vascular resistance. Ventricular wall muscle mass increases in the first trimester, followed by an increase in end-diastolic volume in the second and early third trimesters to increase cardiac compliance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMaternal-Fetal Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation
PublisherCambridge University Press
Pages1-11
Number of pages11
ISBN (Print)9780511674792, 9780521887090
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2010
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Placenta
Mothers
Pregnancy
Fetal Development
Fetus
Cardiovascular System
Physiological Adaptation
Food
Corpus Luteum
Third Pregnancy Trimester
First Pregnancy Trimester
Life Cycle Stages
Blood Volume
Cardiac Output
Vascular Resistance
Compliance
Kidney
Muscles
Growth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Myatt, L., & Powell, T. (2010). Maternal adaptations to pregnancy and the role of the placenta. In Maternal-Fetal Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation (pp. 1-11). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511674792.001

Maternal adaptations to pregnancy and the role of the placenta. / Myatt, Leslie; Powell, Theresa.

Maternal-Fetal Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation. Cambridge University Press, 2010. p. 1-11.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Myatt, L & Powell, T 2010, Maternal adaptations to pregnancy and the role of the placenta. in Maternal-Fetal Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation. Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511674792.001
Myatt L, Powell T. Maternal adaptations to pregnancy and the role of the placenta. In Maternal-Fetal Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation. Cambridge University Press. 2010. p. 1-11 https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511674792.001
Myatt, Leslie ; Powell, Theresa. / Maternal adaptations to pregnancy and the role of the placenta. Maternal-Fetal Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation. Cambridge University Press, 2010. pp. 1-11
@inbook{c7c97f2387b448f684cc9847f75cf7c0,
title = "Maternal adaptations to pregnancy and the role of the placenta",
abstract = "Delivery of an optimally grown, viable infant defines a successful pregnancy. Optimal growth is achieved by the interaction of maternal, placental, and fetal systems to deliver maternal nutrients to the placenta, transfer them to the fetus, and maximize their utilization for fetal growth. Pregnancy is characterized by profound changes in the maternal immune, metabolic, cardiovascular, and renal systems to ensure a successful pregnancy and adequate fetal growth. The fetal-placental unit secretes many hormonal signals, the roles of which include redirecting maternal physiology and metabolism to direct substrate toward the fetus and support normal fetal growth. The physiological adaptations of pregnancy begin shortly after conception, indeed before the establishment of a fetal-placental unit, and thus in their early phases must be directed by maternal signals, including those from the corpus luteum. Subsequently feto-placental signals play a major role in regulation of maternal metabolism. This chapter describes the maternal adaptation to pregnancy and the role of the placenta in nutrient transfer to the fetus. The changes in the cardiovascular system seen in pregnancy are by far the largest physiological challenge this system will face throughout the life cycle and include anatomical changes, increased blood volume and cardiac output, and a decrease in systemic vascular resistance. Ventricular wall muscle mass increases in the first trimester, followed by an increase in end-diastolic volume in the second and early third trimesters to increase cardiac compliance.",
author = "Leslie Myatt and Theresa Powell",
year = "2010",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1017/CBO9780511674792.001",
language = "English (US)",
isbn = "9780511674792",
pages = "1--11",
booktitle = "Maternal-Fetal Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation",
publisher = "Cambridge University Press",

}

TY - CHAP

T1 - Maternal adaptations to pregnancy and the role of the placenta

AU - Myatt, Leslie

AU - Powell, Theresa

PY - 2010/1/1

Y1 - 2010/1/1

N2 - Delivery of an optimally grown, viable infant defines a successful pregnancy. Optimal growth is achieved by the interaction of maternal, placental, and fetal systems to deliver maternal nutrients to the placenta, transfer them to the fetus, and maximize their utilization for fetal growth. Pregnancy is characterized by profound changes in the maternal immune, metabolic, cardiovascular, and renal systems to ensure a successful pregnancy and adequate fetal growth. The fetal-placental unit secretes many hormonal signals, the roles of which include redirecting maternal physiology and metabolism to direct substrate toward the fetus and support normal fetal growth. The physiological adaptations of pregnancy begin shortly after conception, indeed before the establishment of a fetal-placental unit, and thus in their early phases must be directed by maternal signals, including those from the corpus luteum. Subsequently feto-placental signals play a major role in regulation of maternal metabolism. This chapter describes the maternal adaptation to pregnancy and the role of the placenta in nutrient transfer to the fetus. The changes in the cardiovascular system seen in pregnancy are by far the largest physiological challenge this system will face throughout the life cycle and include anatomical changes, increased blood volume and cardiac output, and a decrease in systemic vascular resistance. Ventricular wall muscle mass increases in the first trimester, followed by an increase in end-diastolic volume in the second and early third trimesters to increase cardiac compliance.

AB - Delivery of an optimally grown, viable infant defines a successful pregnancy. Optimal growth is achieved by the interaction of maternal, placental, and fetal systems to deliver maternal nutrients to the placenta, transfer them to the fetus, and maximize their utilization for fetal growth. Pregnancy is characterized by profound changes in the maternal immune, metabolic, cardiovascular, and renal systems to ensure a successful pregnancy and adequate fetal growth. The fetal-placental unit secretes many hormonal signals, the roles of which include redirecting maternal physiology and metabolism to direct substrate toward the fetus and support normal fetal growth. The physiological adaptations of pregnancy begin shortly after conception, indeed before the establishment of a fetal-placental unit, and thus in their early phases must be directed by maternal signals, including those from the corpus luteum. Subsequently feto-placental signals play a major role in regulation of maternal metabolism. This chapter describes the maternal adaptation to pregnancy and the role of the placenta in nutrient transfer to the fetus. The changes in the cardiovascular system seen in pregnancy are by far the largest physiological challenge this system will face throughout the life cycle and include anatomical changes, increased blood volume and cardiac output, and a decrease in systemic vascular resistance. Ventricular wall muscle mass increases in the first trimester, followed by an increase in end-diastolic volume in the second and early third trimesters to increase cardiac compliance.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84927116282&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84927116282&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1017/CBO9780511674792.001

DO - 10.1017/CBO9780511674792.001

M3 - Chapter

AN - SCOPUS:84927116282

SN - 9780511674792

SN - 9780521887090

SP - 1

EP - 11

BT - Maternal-Fetal Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation

PB - Cambridge University Press

ER -