New discoveries in cell biology, molecular biology and genetics have unveiled some of the pathophysiological mysteries of some of the bone marrow failure syndromes. Many of these discoveries have revealed why these syndromes show so much clinical overlap and some hold the potential for influencing the development of new therapies. In children and adults with pancytopenia and hypoplastic bone marrows proper differential diagnosis requires that some attention be directed toward defining molecular and cellular pathogenetic mechanisms because, once identified, some of these mechanisms will clearly suggest rational therapeutic approaches, treatment options that should be avoided, or both.In Section I, Drs. Jeffrey Lipton and Grover Bagby review the approach to diagnosis and management of patients with the inherited bone marrow failure syndromes, Fanconi anemia, dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, and the Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. Extraordinary progress has been made in identifying the genes bearing pathogenetically relevant mutations in these disorders, but slower progress has been made in defining the precise functions of the proteins these genes encode in normal cells, in part because it is increasingly obvious that the proteins are multifunctional. In practice, it is clear that in patients with dyskeratosis congenita and Fanconi anemia, the diagnosis must be considered not only in children but in adults as well.In Section II, Dr. Elaine Sloand outlines a very practical and evidence-based approach to diagnosis and management of acquired hypoplastic states emphasizing overlap between non-clonal and clonal hematopoiesis is such conditions. The pathogenesis of T lymphocyte-mediated marrow failure is presented as a clear-cut rationale for use of immunosuppressive therapy and stem cell transplantation. Practical management of patients with refractory disease with and without evidence of clonal evolution (either paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria [PNH] or myelodysplasia [MDS]) is presented.In Section III, the challenge of hypoplastic MDS is reviewed by Dr. Charles Schiffer. After reviewing the most up-to-date classification scheme, therapeutic options are reviewed, focusing largely on agents that have most recently shown some promising activity, including DNA demethylating agents, thalidomide and CC5013, arsenic trioxide, and immunosuppressive therapy. Here are also outlined the rationale and the indications for choosing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, the only therapy with known curative potential.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||19|
|Journal||Hematology / the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program|
|State||Published - 2004|
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