Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of intraocular tumors

Nancy H. Kolodny, Evangelos S. Gragoudas, Donald J. D'Amico, Daniel M. Albert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Proton magnetic resonance imaging (1H MRI) has emerged as a clinically useful tool for the diagnosis of intraocular tumors. During the last four years 1H MRI characteristics, including spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) and spin-spin relaxation times (T2), have been established for several types of tumors. The introduction of surface coils to the imaging process has significantly improved the quality of intraocular MR images, leading some clinicians to suggest that 1H MR images are preferable to CT scans. Another MRI technique, in which sodium-23 (23Na) is imaged rather than protons, is now under development as tool for intraocular diagnosis. The potential of 23Na MRI depends upon the high concentration and "visibility" of sodium in the vitreous body, and upon the apparent differences in sodium behavior in normal cells vs. tumor cells. The metabolism of normal ocular tissues and intraocular tumors may be probed noninvasively with phosphorus-31 MR spectroscopy (31P MRS). Much progress has been made during the last few years in understanding the appearance of 31P MR spectra of many types of healthy and diseased cells and tissues. Clinical application of this technique to the diagnosis and monitoring of intraocular tumors following conservative treatment will be dependent upon the development of spectroscopy techniques that collect information from the volume of interest (tumor) only.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)502-514
Number of pages13
JournalSurvey of Ophthalmology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jan 1 1989
Externally publishedYes


  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • magnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • nuclear magnetic resonance
  • ocular tumors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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